University of Cincinnati professor Jason Heikenfeld examined the potential of these and other biofluids to test human health with tiny, portable sensors for the journal Nature Biotechnology.
Remarkably, many of the innovations in the field of biosensors and sweat technology were developed in Cincinnati.
"We have been able to go far and fast here," Heikenfeld said.
In the Nature article, Heikenfeld identified four waves of discovery when it comes to testing human health.
First, doctors began drawing and shipping blood to labs in an invasive, time-consuming and labor-intensive process that patients still undergo today.
Starting around the 1980s researchers, including pioneering UC engineering professor Chong Ahn, developed point-of-care lab tests that allowed doctors to get immediate results.