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Climate change could make flying more expensive in the future due to increased turbulence, according to Paul Williams, a Professor of Atmospheric Science in the Department of Meteorology at the University of Reading.

Invisible turbulence, or clear-air turbulence, is different to turbulence caused by flying through clouds or a rainstorm because it can happen in conditions where visibility is clear.

Invisible turbulence is generated by wind shear, or the colliding of air masses, which gets stronger at higher altitudes.

Scientists predict that wind shear is increasing, and in turn creating more turbulence, as a result of the jet stream speeding up due to climate change, Williams said.

Turbulence causes injuries to passengers, flight attendants, and crew, which could ultimately cost airlines billions of dollars globally due to the greater risk of injuries, he added.

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