This may change with a simple new technique developed by engineers from the University of California, Riverside that can detect fake drugs from a video taken as the sample undergoes a disturbance.If you've ever used online photo tools, you've probably seen how these tools use image analysis algorithms to categorize your photos.By distinguishing the different people in your photos, these algorithms make it easy to find all the photos of your daughter or your dad.Now, in the journal ACS Central Science, researchers report they have used these algorithms to solve a very different problem: identifying fake medicines and other potentially dangerous products.The World Health Organization says that about 10 percent of all medicines in low- and middle-income countries are counterfeit, and food fraud is a global problem that costs consumers and industry billions of dollars per year.McKenzie designed a set of experiments to test this idea.
Modern analytical tools like mass spectrometers can identify many unknown substances, allowing scientists to easily tell whether foods or medicines have been altered.However, the cost, size, power consumption and complexity of these instruments often prevent their use in resource-limited regions.Now, in ACS Central Science, researchers report that they have developed a simple, inexpensive method to identify samples by seeing how they react to a change in their environment.As with counterfeit medications, fraudulent foods can also place consumers at risk of illness or death, in addition to costing the industry billions of dollars per year.William Grover and colleagues at the University of California, Riverside wondered whether they could develop a simple, less expensive and reliable test to compare unknown samples with authentic foods and medicines.The researchers based their test on "chronoprints," a term they use to describe images that capture how a sample changes over space and time in response to a perturbation -- in this case, a sudden temperature change.
A new study published in The Journal of Transportation and Land Use aims to understand how parking demand is changing as people opt to hitch a ride and leave their cars at home.Researchers from the University of Colorado Denver found that people who use ride-hailing are willing to pay more to avoid driving, including the stress and cost of parking.As a result, cities are seeing a reduction in parking demand, particularly at restaurants and bars, event venues, and airports.That reduction could push cities to reconsider and replace parking infrastructure, leading to more vibrant cities and, one day, less dependency on cars.For the study, he teamed up with Wes Marshall, PhD, PE, associate professor in the College of Engineering, Design and Computing.Their research found ride-hailing increased deadheading (drivers circulating around without passengers), congestion and vehicle miles traveled while luring passengers away from more sustainable travel options like walking, biking and public transportation.
Small children may one day avoid invasive, painful and often traumatic oesophageal tube-testing for gut damage and coeliac disease with a new method of simply blowing into a glass tube to provide effective diagnoses.Research published today in international journal Scientific Reports describes an exciting new breath test that could have global implications on how to detect gastrointestinal damage.In the first study of its kind, Flinders University researchers will trial the new Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (or 'DPP4') breath test in a pilot study to measure a digestive enzyme found in the small intestine and is associated with gastrointestinal damage and coeliac disease.Lead researcher Dr Roger Yazbek says the specific DPP4 enzyme is produced in the small intestine and breaks down dietary proteins that have been associated with coeliac disease and associated gut damage."This breath test represents a potentially new way to non-invasively measure gut health," says Flinders research fellow Dr Yazbek, who is looking to commence the first trials at the Women's and Children's Hospital in Adelaide, South Australia."Not only will these tests improve patient quality of life but potentially save the health care system time and money, particularly if adapted for point-of-care testing in rural and remote areas."
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- About 2.5 billion gallons of produced water, a byproduct from the oil refinery and extraction process, is generated each day in the United States.Handling that water is a major challenge in the oil refinery industry, particularly because it is deemed unusable for household and commercial use by the Environmental Protection Agency because of remaining contaminants.Now, Purdue University researchers have developed a process to remove nearly all traces of oil in produced water.The process uses activated charcoal foam and subjects it to solar light to produce heat and purify the water."I have seen in my home country of India how people suffer for the want of pure water, and we as researchers need to do as much as we can to help."The Purdue's team process also meets all EPA standards for clean water from industrial sources and had a total organic carbon of 7.5 milligrams per liter.
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Guodong Zhang, assistant professor of food science at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, is being honored with the 2019 Young Scientist Research Award from the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS).The award is given to scientists whose research "has significantly effected an advance within their discipline, or holds substantial promise for such an effect in the near future."Recipients of the Young Scientist Research Award must be younger than 36 years old or have earned their highest degree within the last 10 years.Zhang will receive $1,000, a plaque and a $1,500 travel allowance to attend the AOCS annual meeting May 5-8 in St. Louis, Mo., where he will be recognized and give an award lecture."We are very happy to receive this award," says Zhang, including his research team in the honor.The AOCS is an international professional organization with roots back to 1909.
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- Microscopy innovator Abhishek Kumar, Ph.D., has received a national award from the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative (CZI) to join the staff of the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) as a key collaborator in the MBL's Imaging Initiative, an emerging, interdisciplinary center dedicated to research, discovery, and training in biological imaging and analysis.Kumar is one of 17 "CZI Imaging Scientist" awardees announced today by the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, the Redwood City, Calif.-based philanthropy.Each awardee will receive three years of salary support at one of 17 imaging centers across the United States."Improving imaging means improving broad areas of biomedicine, which is central to CZI's mission of supporting the science and technology that will make it possible to cure, prevent, or manage all diseases by the end of this century."Kumar brings expertise in developing optical (light) microscopes to the MBL Imaging Initiative's extraordinarily fertile environment for collaboration, innovation, and dissemination of discoveries.Kumar will be directly engaged in imaging research and training, and will also catalyze collaborations and help ensure that innovations are disseminated quickly and broadly through the MBL's educational courses and workshops.
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A team of researchers including Northwestern Engineering faculty has expanded the understanding of how virus shells self-assemble, an important step toward developing techniques that use viruses as vehicles to deliver targeted drugs and therapeutics throughout the body.By performing multiple amino acid substitutions, the researchers discovered instances of epistasis, a phenomenon in which two changes produce a behavior different from the behavior that each change causes individually."We found occurrences where two separate single amino acid changes caused the virus shell to break or become really unstable, but making both changes together produced a stable structure that functioned better than ever," said Danielle Tullman-Ercek, associate professor of chemical and biological engineering at the McCormick School of Engineering.The paper titled "Experimental Evaluation of Coevolution in a Self-Assembling Particle," was published the March 19 print issue of Biochemistry.Tullman-Ercek served as the paper's co-corresponding author along with collaborator Matthew Francis, professor of chemistry at the University of California at Berkeley.The work builds on past research in which Tullman-Ercek and collaborators developed a new technique, called SyMAPS (Systematic Mutation and Assembled Particle Selection), to test variations of a protein used by a bacterial virus called the MS2 bacteriophage.
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Electric vehicles are powered by lithium-ion batteries (LIB), a rechargeable battery that's still not fully understood or perfected.And inasmuch as electric cars are expected to replace gas-powered cars, any research that improves the performance of a lithium-ion battery will be a boon for electric vehicles and the environment.Professors Matthias Preindl and Alan West, two Columbia professors, are developing a machine-learning model that can more accurately estimate a Li-Ion battery's charge level.Current estimates of a battery's state of charge have error rates of five percent, whereas this team's model aims for an error rate of one percent.Their research is supported by a Seeds Fund Grant from the Data Science Institute.What are known as Battery Management Systems are trained to capture a battery's state of health and to predict its remaining life time.
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Why do blood vessels naturally stiffen and degrade as we age, boosting cardiovascular disease risk?"This is the first study to show that changes in the gut microbiome with aging have an adverse impact on vascular health," said lead author Vienna Brunt, a postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Integrative Physiology."It opens up a whole new avenue of potential interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease."After three to four weeks of the treatment, the young mice saw no change in vascular health."When you suppressed the microbiome of the old mice, their vascular health was restored to that of young mice," said senior author and professor Doug Seals, director of the Integrative Physiology of Aging Laboratory.For instance, the old mice hosted significantly more Proteobacteria, a phyla that includes Salmonella and other pathogens, and pro-inflammatory Desulfovibrio.
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Today, the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative (CZI) announced $17 million in funding and its selection of 17 CZI Imaging Scientists -- engineers, physicists, mathematicians, computer scientists, and biologists with expertise in technology development.The imaging of molecules, cells, and tissues remains central to both biomedical research and clinical practice, yet progress in the imaging field has been slowed by inadequate software and limited sharing of advanced microscopy methods.Read our Medium post to learn more."Microscopy is a critical tool that allows researchers to actually see biology and life happen instead of just inferring from disparate data points," said CZI co-founder Priscilla Chan."Our hope is that microscopy will help scientists identify the causes and effects of diseases.One of the ways we're helping to accelerate scientific progress is by creating connections that otherwise wouldn't have existed--it's our hope that by bringing together biologists, clinicians, and engineers, we can drive important advances in the field."
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- Tyler Iorizzo, a Ph.D. candidate in physics at UMass Lowell, has won international recognition for his work to develop an imaging device that could lead to improved diagnosis and treatment of certain skin cancers.For his research, Iorizzo received an Educational Award from Edmund Optics, one of the world's leading suppliers of high-precision optics for the optical industry.Iorizzo is part of a team that developed a device called an optical polarization imager, or OPI, that could help doctors identify the margins of nonmelanoma skin cancer prior to surgery, allowing them to remove the malignant tumor with more precision and resulting in less complication and quicker recovery for the patient.It doesn't use X-ray or high-intensity laser so it's perfectly safe for the patient and the doctor," said Iorizzo, who conducts research at UMass Lowell's Advanced Biophotonics Laboratory."Currently, there is no comparable tool available in the market," said Anna Yaroslavsky, UMass Lowell associate professor of physics and director and founder of the Advanced Biophotonics Laboratory."Surgeons basically look at the outline of a cancerous lesion visually and, based on their experience and training, decide where and how much tissue to cut.
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The University of Luxembourg and the European rocket manufacturer ArianeGroup have signed a collaboration agreement to advance research in the area of rocket propulsion.Cryogenic propellants such as liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen are widely used in space propulsion systems because they are more efficient and less toxic than other propellants.These fuels need to be stored at extremely low temperatures in order to maintain their liquid state.The rocket engine, its valves and feeding lines must however be able to operate properly when in direct contact with the extremely cold fuels.After the valve has completely cooled down, it can be safely opened and the propellants are supplied to the engine for ignition."There are currently no accurate models to predict this cryogenic heat transfer process.
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Researchers at Saarland University have created an ultrathin flexible film that can act as a sensor for innovative technologies.Another goal of the research work is to assist the wearer of the glove by transmitting tactile signals, such as pulses or vibrations, that are produced by the polymer film.The team of engineers will be at Hannover Messe from the 1st to the 5th of April at the Saarland Research and Innovation Stand (Hall 2, Stand B46), where they will be showcasing the prototype glove and looking for partners with whom they can develop the technology for practical applications.This takes time and results in production delays.If only the computer had been able to flag up the error while the operator was taking the component from the storage bin.Now, thanks to a smart glove developed by a team of engineers led by Stefan Seelecke at Saarland University, this information can be made available to the computer system.
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Researchers at Eindhoven University of Technology and Utrecht University have discovered the parameters that govern the encapsulation of drugs.This gives more control over the slow and steady release of drugs in patients.Moreover, designing encapsulations for new drugs will now require far less experimentation which makes for faster and cheaper drug development.The researchers believe this work will have a significant impact on the biomedical field and designing future drugs.One possible solution is to encapsulate the drugs in small packages that are hydrophobic (water-repellent) on the inside and hydrophilic (water-soluble) on the outside.When dissolved in water, a physiological solution, or blood, these molecules orient their hydrophobic part towards the inside core (with affinity for the insoluble drugs) and their hydrophilic side towards the outside, forming a spherical 'package', called a micelle.
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A £2.4 million engineering research facility will seek to speed the development of materials and structures for tidal energy, transport and other industries.It will be built by the University of Edinburgh and commercial partner Babcock International at Rosyth in Fife, Scotland.Engineering researchers will use an efficient hydraulic technology - developed by University spin-off company Artemis Intelligent Power - which enables structures to be tested significantly faster and using less energy compared with existing technologies.FASTBLADE's first clients will include tidal stream developers.Tidal blades made of composite materials need to be designed to withstand high fatigue loads in harsh ocean conditions for up to 20 years.FASTBLADE will help fulfil the University's commitments as part of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland City Region Deal, which includes targets to help improve digital skills across the whole of the region.
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This technology allows watching videos of various kinds and posting comments that are superimposed on the video, collaboratively.It's called "danmaku" in Japanese and "danmu" in Mandarin Chinese and was launched in 2007 and 2008, respectively.The comments are published in a text bar that crosses the screen from right to left like a contextualized chat on the frame itself.In this way, audiences can watch their favourite videos while reading, writing and exchanging their views on the one screen, in an instant, contextualized and dynamic chat."While in the West multimedia platforms like YouTube have been widely studied, Asian portals remain unknown.So we analysed the "danmaku" or "danmu" phenomenon from the point of view of uses by the youth and intercultural uses of these platforms that are so popular in China", state Leticia-Tian Zhang, a researcher sponsored with a scholarship from the Chinese Government, and Daniel Cassany, coordinator of the study and professor and researcher, both with the Department of Translation and Language Sciences at UPF, and authors of an article showing the first results on this topic which they have published in the journal Comunicar.
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Scientists from the National University of Science and Technology "MISIS" developed nanomaterial, which will be able to rstore the internal structure of bones damaged due to osteoporosis and osteomyelitis.Such diseases as osteoporosis and osteomyelitis cause irreversible degenerative changes in the bone structure.Such diseases require serious complex treatment and surgery and transplantation of the destroyed bone marrow in severe stages.Research group from the National University of Science and Technology "MISIS" (NUST MISIS), led by Anton Manakhov (Laboratory for Inorganic Nanomaterials) developed material that will allow to restore damaged internal bone structure without bone marrow transplantation.It is based on nanofibers of polycaprolactone, which is biocompatible self-dissolvable material.Earlier, the same research group has already worked with this material: by adding antibiotics to the nanofibers, scientists have managed to create non-changeable healing bandages.
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Though still theoretical, the work is a step toward developing a spacecraft that could reach the nearest planet outside of our solar system in 20 years, powered and accelerated only by light.A paper describing the research appears online in the March 18 issue of the journal Nature Photonics.Decades ago, the development of so-called optical tweezers enabled scientists to move and manipulate tiny objects, like nanoparticles, using the radiative pressure from a sharply focused beam of laser light.This work formed the basis for the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics.However, optical tweezers are only able to manipulate very small objects and only at very short distances.Ognjen Ilic, postdoctoral scholar and the study's first author, gives an analogy: "One can levitate a ping pong ball using a steady stream of air from a hair dryer.
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Freshwater biodiversity is rapidly declining worldwide, and nature-based solutions which increase the resilience of ecological communities are becoming increasingly important in helping communities prepare for the unavoidable effects of climate change.TalTech robotics scientists, together with their colleagues from Lisbon, studied how fish adapt to rapid changes in the surrounding freshwater environment.To conduct the study, the researchers varied the water current and depth in a simulated river with obstacles, and found that fish were able to rapidly adapt to the changes when alone and also when in groups.The results of the study are published in a prestigious scientific journal PLOS ONE in the article "Fish under pressure: Examining behavioural responses of Iberian barbel under simulated hydropeaking with instream structures".Researcher at TalTech Centre for Biorobotics and a co-author on the study Jeffrey Tuhtan said, "The findings suggest that cues initiated by obstacles in the flow can be detected by fish to find energetically-beneficial places in the flow even under extreme and rapid environmental change."The concept of observing fish in simulated rivers as individuals or in groups is not unusual, but the effects of rapid environmental variations, such as quickly changing water depths due to hydropower plant operations or a flash flood remain largely unknown.
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