The National Science Foundation (NSF) has awarded funding to the W. M. Keck Observatory on Maunakea, Hawaii for a significant enhancement of the performance of the AO system on the Keck II telescope."The Keck telescopes were the first large telescopes to be equipped with adaptive optics and subsequently laser guide stars.This upgrade will help maintain our science community's competitive advantage," said Principal Investigator Peter Wizinowich, chief of technical development at Keck Observatory.AO is a technique used to remove the distortions caused by turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere.This results in sharper, more detailed astronomical images.This will reduce the camera readout and computation time between the time that an image is captured and a correction for atmospheric blurring is made.
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The model has profound implications for applications in printed electronics, energy storage in paper, and bioelectronics.One of the most commonly used materials in organic electronics is the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS, and tens of thousands of scientific articles have been published referring to the material and its properties.One of the major advantages of PEDOT:PSS is that it conducts both ions and electrons, but a model that explains how this works has, until now, not been available.Klas Tybrandt, principal investigator in the Soft Electronics group at the Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Campus Norrköping, has developed a theoretical model for the interaction between ions and electrons that explains how ion transport and electron transport are related."Classical electrochemical models have mainly been used in the past for this type of system, and this has led to a certain degree of confusion, since the models do not include the properties of semiconductors.We have used a purely physical description that clarifies the concepts," says Klas Tybrandt.
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Understanding how cancer cells are able to metastasize -- migrate from the primary tumor to distant sites in the body -- and developing therapies to inhibit this process are the focus of many laboratories around the country."We think this could be one way cancer cells actually migrate from one place to another to induce metastasis," says Besim Ogretmen, Ph.D., senior author for this study, director of the Developmental Cancer Therapeutics Program at the Hollings Cancer Center and professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at MUSC.Interestingly, mice lacking CerS4 had alopecia, a condition in which hair is lost from some or all parts of the body.It turns out that keratinocytes, or skin cells, migrate through the outer skin to maintain hair follicles."Some unexpected phenotypes in animal models can actually lead to something very important in cancer biology that we didn't expect.Ceramide produced by CerS4 binds to Smad7, a cellular protein that can bind the TGF-beta receptor.
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BELLINGHAM, Washington, USA, and CARDIFF, UK --SPIE, the international society for optics and photonics, has announced that two of its journals, the Journal of Biomedical Optics and Neurophotonics, will become fully open access journals starting in January 2019.JBO publishes peer-reviewed papers on the use of modern optical technology for improved health care and biomedical research.A companion journal to JBO, Neurophotonics covers advances in optical technology applicable to study of the brain and their impact on the basic and clinical neuroscience applications."SPIE is converting JBO and Neurophotonics to open access with strong endorsement from the editorial boards and those most closely involved with the two journals," said incoming SPIE Publications Committee Chair David Andrews of the University of East Anglia."This new and exciting development for SPIE journals will support broad global access to timely and valuable published research."Current JBO editor Wang said, "We believe open access will allow JBO to reach a broader readership in a timely fashion and better serve the biomedical optics community and users of our technologies."
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The automated system could help alleviate the current lack of highly trained microbiologists, expected to worsen as 20 percent of technologists reach retirement age in the next five years."This marks the first demonstration of machine learning in the diagnostic area," said senior author James Kirby, MD, Director of the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory at BIDMC and Associate Professor of Pathology at Harvard Medical School.These characteristics were selected to represent bacteria that most often cause bloodstream infections; the rod-shaped bacteria including E. coli; the round clusters of Staphylococcus species; and the pairs or chains of Streptococcus species.To train it, the scientists fed their unschooled neural network more than 25,000 images from blood samples prepared during routine clinical workups.The machine intelligence learned how to sort the images into the three categories of bacteria (rod-shaped, round clusters, and round chains or pairs), ultimately achieving nearly 95 percent accuracy.Overall, the algorithm achieved more than 93 percent accuracy in all three categories.
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Anand Puppala, associate dean for research in the College of Engineering at The University of Texas at Arlington and a civil engineering professor, recently was awarded a patent for developing a sensor system with an algorithm that will expedite field assessment of stabilization of high sulfate soils near bridges and roads.9,822,504, titled "Systems, Apparatuses and Methods for assessing soil heave," was issued in November.He received it with his collaborator, Xiong Yu of Case Western Reserve University.Puppala's algorithm works with an integrated moisture sensor and a time domain reflectometry, or TDR, probe.The sensor, which has bender elements, is integrated with the time domain reflectometry strip.When stabilizing soils with chemicals, which is typical in road construction, soil stiffness generally increases over time.
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Breakthrough research from The University of Texas at Arlington and The University of Vermont could lead to a dramatic reduction in the cost and energy consumption of high-speed internet connections.Nonlinear-optical effects, such as intensity-dependent refractive index, can be used to process data thousands of times faster than what can be achieved electronically.Such processing has, until now, worked only for one optical beam at a time because the nonlinear-optical effects also cause unwanted inter-beam interaction, or crosstalk, when multiple light beams are present.An article published in the prestigious Nature Communications journal, by the research group of Michael Vasilyev, an electrical engineering professor at UTA, in collaboration with Taras I. Lakoba, a mathematics professor at UVM, detailed an experimental demonstration of an optical medium in which multiple beams of light can autocorrect their own shapes without affecting one another.This work, funded by the National Science Foundation, enables simultaneous nonlinear-optical processing of multiple light beams by a single device without converting them to electrical form, opening the way for this technology to reach its full multi-Terabit per second potential, resulting in cheaper and more energy efficient high-speed internet communications.Currently, to eliminate the noise accumulated during light propagation in optical communication links, telecom carriers must resort to frequent optoelectronic regeneration, where they convert optical signals to electrical via fast photodetectors, process them with silicon-based circuitry, and then convert the electrical signals back to optical, using lasers followed by electro-optic modulators.
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DURHAM, N.C. -- Engineers have shown that a widely used method of detecting single photons can also count the presence of at least four photons at a time.The researchers say this discovery will unlock new capabilities in physics labs working in quantum information science around the world, while providing easier paths to developing quantum-based technologies."Experts in the field were trying to do this more than a decade ago, but their back-of-the-envelope calculations concluded it would be impossible," said Daniel Gauthier, a professor of physics at Ohio State who was formerly the chair of physics at Duke.The discovery deals with a new method for using a photon detector called a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD).But just like a normal piece of copper wire, a superconductor can only carry so much electricity at once.A SNSPD works by charging a looped segment of superconducting wire with an electric current close to its maximum limit.
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And you are not alone: 90 percent of Americans use light-emitting electronic devices, such as smartphones and laptops, in the hour before bed, despite the fact that such behavior is associated with symptoms of insomnia.Knowing that individuals with insomnia are also unlikely to change their ways, researchers from Columbia University Medical Center tested a method to reduce the adverse effects of evening ambient light exposure, while still allowing use of blue light-emitting devices.Smartphones, tablets and other light-emitting devices are lit by LEDs, which have a peak wavelength in the blue portion of the spectrum.The Columbia team, led by Ari Shechter, PhD, assistant professor of medical sciences, reasoned that selectively blocking blue light in the hours before bedtime would lead to improved sleep in individuals with insomnia.For seven consecutive nights, participants wore wrap-around frames with amber-tinted lenses that blocked blue light or with clear placebo lenses for two hours before bedtime.Four weeks later, participants repeated the protocol with the other set of glasses.
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This year, engineer Susan Fowler brought down Uber CEO Travis Kalanick.“There is no doubt that it has been a watershed year.” That’s what Sukhinder Singh Cassidy, founder of theBoardlist, told attendees at The Atlantic’s second “Inclusion in Tech” summit, held in San Francisco this week.“This year, we saw people who had been holding power lose that power,” said Erica Joy Baker, senior engineering manager of Patreon and founding advisor to Project Include.“People were finally listened to…and believed.”“What made people start caring” about what women were saying, TechCrunch reporter Megan Rose Dickey mused: “Maybe the smallest sliver of silver lining of the Trump presidency is that people are finally aware of how messed up this country is.”Fowler, who in February wrote a blog post detailing her experiences with rampant sexism at Uber, started this year’s snowball rolling against sexual harassment in the tech world.
Ironically, isolation and loneliness have spread rapidly as communication has become easier - particularly among older adults.According to Age UK, 3.9 million older adults see the TV as their best form of company - an issue that carries serious consequences.Loneliness is said to increase the risk of death by 26% - equivalent to factors such as smoking and obesity - and cost the nation £6,000 per person in health costs and pressure on local services.In an age when increasing services and information are available online, how can a non-digitalised generation engage with technology to help improve the quality of their lives?Lancaster University researchers are working on a €2.9 million project involving more than 100 older adults across Europe to co-create apps and digital services to deal with complex social issues such as isolation, exclusion and access to services.Using open data, the app shows users social opportunities available in their chosen area based on their preferences, as well as offering real-time information on factors that research suggests discourage older adults from venturing out - such as weather and levels of daylight.
A study led by physicists at Swansea University in Wales, carried out by an international team of researchers and published in the journal Physical Review X shows that ion-trap technologies available today are suitable for building large-scale quantum computers.In order to reach their full potential, today's quantum computer prototypes have to meet specific criteria: First, they have to be made bigger, which means they need to consist of a considerably higher number of quantum bits.Second, they have to be capable of processing errors."We still fail in running complex computations because environmental noise and errors cause the system to get out of control," says quantum physicist Rainer Blatt in Innsbruck.Classical computers use similar schemes to detect and correct errors during data storage and transfer: Before data is stored and transferred, redundancy is added to the data usually in the form of additional bits detecting and correcting errors.Scientists have developed comparable schemes for quantum computers, where quantum information is encoded in several entangled physical quantum bits.
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Conversational artificial intelligence (AI) is a task of having meaningful dialogue with a user and acting as human as possible.Dialogue agents -- programmes capable for having a conversation -- surround us everywhere: from bots that we chat with on messengers to personal assistants and voice control interfaces.The competition gathered chatbots developed to define which techniques would make a chatbot appear intelligent.The competition was held in two stages: At first round, organized by the Neural Networks and Deep Learning Lab this summer, the participants of the hackathon talked to the systems.Reflecting the wider AI boom, over the past few years the NIPS conference has grown from a small gathering of a few hundred academics to a sprawling event with thousands of attendees, big-name corporate recruiters, and lavish parties.Six teams from the University of Wroclaw, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, McGill University, KAIST & AIBrain & Crosscert, UMass Lowell's Text Machine Lab & Trinity College, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, and Fudan University took part in the competition finals.
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NASA's Aqua satellite provided infrared imagery of Tropical Storm Kai-Tak that revealed the western side of storm had moved into the southern and central Philippines.Infrared data revealed very cold cloud top temperatures with the potential for heavy rainfall.The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured an infrared image of Tropical Storm Kai-Tak on Dec. 14 at 12:11 p.m. EST (1711 UTC).Infrared data provides cloud top temperatures and the coldest cloud tops and strongest storms were blanketing the southern and central Philippines.Infrared data showed persistent central cold cover obscuring the low-level circulation center where cloud top temperatures were as cold as minus 115.6 degrees Fahrenheit or minus 82 degrees Celsius.On Dec. 15 at 10 a.m. EST (1500 UTC) the Joint Typhoon Warning Center reported that Tropical storm Kai-tak, known as Urduja in the Philippines had maximum sustained winds near 45 knots (52 mph/83 kph).
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In a successful collaboration between the Graphene Flagship and the European Space Agency, experiments testing graphene for two different space-related applications have shown extremely promising results."Graphene as we know has a lot of opportunities.The Graphene Flagship tested both these applications in recent experiments in November and December 2017.Two different types of graphene were tested in a collaboration between the Microgravity Research Centre, Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium; the Cambridge Graphene Centre, University of Cambridge, UK; the Institute for Organic Synthesis and Photoreactivity and the Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, both at the National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Italy; and industry partner Leonardo Spa, Italy, a global leader in aerospace, operating in space systems and high-tech instrument manufacturing and in the management of launch and in-orbit services and satellite services."We have good tests done on earth in the lab, and now of course because the applications will be in satellites, we needed to see how the wicks perform in low gravity conditions and also in hypergravity conditions, to simulate a satellite launch," added Prof Ferrari."It was amazing, the feeling is incredible and its extremely interesting to do experiments in these kinds of conditions but also to enjoy the free-floating zone.
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Researchers, prospective partners, media professionals, students, and space enthusiasts now have more space station science at their fingertips with Space Station Research Explorer on NASA.gov (SSRE on NASA.gov).The new information exploration tool enables researchers, practiced and amateur alike, to stay up-to-date with the science being conducted aboard the International Space Station.With just a few clicks, users are granted access to thousands of space station investigations, results summaries, article citations and in-orbit photographs.Designed with ease of use in mind, investigations can be browsed by keyword, expedition, scientific category, publication, international partner, organization or developer.SSRE on NASA.gov will release in two phases.The current phase of the database features an improved search capability and creates an exclusive environment for space station science.
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Whoosh... gust of wind - sorry chaps, I'm outEngineers and programmers working on a robot bee project could soon have the faux insects behaving more like real bees, according to engineers and roboticists at Cornell and Harvard.The work is a joint effort between Cornell University engineers and the robot insect wranglers at Harvard's Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering.Currently the amount of computer processing power needed for a robot to sense a gust of wind, adjust its flight, or plan its path to land on a swaying flower would require it to carry a desktop-size computer on its back.However, the emergence of neuromorphic computer chips as a way to shrink a robot's payload, together with Cornell researchers' work on "event-based" sensing and control algorithms could help make the RoboBee more "autonomous and adaptable to complex environments" without significantly increasing its weight.Silvia Ferrari, professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering and director of the Laboratory for Intelligent Systems and Controls, said: "Getting hit by a wind gust or a swinging door would cause these small robots to lose control.
Martti, the robot car developed by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, is the first automated car to have driven fully autonomously on a real snow-covered road.On top of that, it also succeeded in making a new speed record of 40 km/h on the Aurora E8 intelligent road in Muonio, probably setting a new unofficial world record as well.The number and placement of sensors differs between the vehicles.Martti has been designed for demanding weather conditions and Marilyn shines as the queen of urban areas," says project manager Matti Kutila from VTT's RobotCar Crew, describing the couple."It clearly has a very determined mindset, and after a persistent 24-hour training session, it started functioning.Martti uses the same software, which did no longer require more than minor adjustments," says Ari Virtanen, who was in charge of building the car and its equipment.
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More materials for electronic applications could be identified, thanks to the discovery of a new metal-organic framework (MOF) that displays electrical semiconduction with a record high photoresponsivity, by a global research collaboration involving the University of Warwick.Research published today in Nature Communications shows how high photoconductivity and semiconductor behaviour can be added to MOFs - which already have a huge international focus for their applications in gas storage, sensing and catalysis.The new work, conducted by Universities in Brazil, the United Kingdom and France - including researchers at Warwick's Department of Chemistry - found that the new MOF has a photoresponsivity of 2.5 × 105 A.W-1- the highest ever observed.The MOF has been prepared using cobalt (II) ions and naphthalene diimides and acid as ligands.The structure shows anisotropic redox conduction, according to the directions of the crystal lattice.Photoactive and semiconducting MOFs are rare but desirable for electrical and photoelectrical devices.
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Imaging at the nanoscale is important to a plethora of modern applications in materials science, physics, biology, medicine and other fields.Limitations of current techniques are, e.g.their resolution, imaging speed or the inability to look behind opaque objects with arbitrary shapes.However, imaging like this would be useful e.g.for investigating spongy electrodes, thus helping to increase capacity and charging speed of next generation batteries.In a research article "3D Nano-scale Imaging by Plasmonic Brownian Microscopy" published today in Nanophotonics, the team around Prof. Xiang Zhang from the University of California in Berkeley demonstrate a method with stunning properties.
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