Could this be the eventual fate of Earth?Astronomers have discovered a grisly scene of planetary destruction, with a fragment of a planet being all that is left circling the dark remains of a dead star.The dead star, located 400 light-years away from Earth, is called SDSS J122859.93+104032.9 and has suffered a cataclysmic collapse.Astronomers from the University of Warwick, U.K., were looking at the white dwarf and were surprised to see a fragment orbiting it, which they believe is the remains of a planet.The fact that anything remains of the planet at all is remarkable, as it sits close enough to its star to orbit every two hours.This is “much closer to [the star] than we would expect to find anything still alive,” according to Professor Boris Gaensicke, co-author of the paper from the Department of Physics at University of Warwick, describing the planet fragment as being located “deep into the gravitational well of the white dwarf.”
A terrifying new study may have provided a window into Earth's ultimate fate by looking at a newly discovered dying planet nearly 400 light years away.The study, published in Science, shows that the chunk of the unnamed dead planet (known as a "planetesimal") has a metal core and is circling the white dwarf star, known as SDSS J122859.93+104032.9, once every two hours."The white dwarf's gravity is so strong – about 100,000 times that of the Earth's – that a typical asteroid will be ripped apart by gravitational forces if it passes too close to the white dwarf," the study's lead author, Dr. Christopher Manser, a professor at the University of Warwick said in a statement.10 TIMES 'EXPERTS' HAVE PREDICTED THE WORLD WOULD END BY NOWDr. Manser added: "The star would have originally been about two solar masses, but now the white dwarf is only 70% of the mass of our Sun.It is also very small – roughly the size of the Earth – and this makes the star, and in general all white dwarfs, extremely dense."
Solid small satellite where a year lasts for just two hoursAstronomers have discovered an object that orbits dangerously close to its parent white dwarf star.“The planetesimal we have discovered is deep into the gravitational well of the white dwarf, much closer to it than we would expect to find anything still alive,” said Boris Gaensicke, co-author of the research published in Science and a physics professor at the University of Warwick.The white dwarf has a catchy codename of SDSS J122859.93+104032.9 and is located 410 light years away, somewhere in the Virgo constellation.Scientists were surprised to find an object that survived the destruction that the perishing star inflicted on its neighboring planets.Originally a main sequence star with twice as much mass as the Sun, the star swelled to become a red giant after all the hydrogen fuel in its core burnt out.
Research led by Professor Ton Peijs of WMG at the University of Warwick and Professor Cees Bastiaansen at Queen Mary University of London, has devised a processing technique that can create transparent polythene film that can be stronger as aluminium but at a fraction of the weight, and which could be used use in glazing, windscreens, visors and displays in ways that add strength and resilience while reducing weight.In a new research paper entitled "Glass-like transparent high strength polyethylene films by tuning drawing temperature."Published online today - 1st April 2019 - in the Journal Polymer, the authors show that after carefully selecting the type polythene and by tuning the temperature during the creation of oriented polythene films a balance can be created that produces a highly useful and lightweight transparent material with a significant strength and resilience approaching, and in some ways, exceeding that of metals.Previously anyone looking to replace heavy and often brittle glasses with a transparent plastic have looked at conventional transparent plastics like polycarbonate (PC) and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) both of which possess relatively unsatisfactory mechanical performance compared to an engineering material like aluminium.Current methods of creating high strength plastic films such as hot-drawing of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) can lead to materials that can compete or even out-perform traditional engineering materials like metals."The microstructure of polymers before drawing very much resembles that of a bowl of cooked spaghetti or noodles, while after stretching or drawing the molecules become aligned in a way similar to that of uncooked spaghetti, meaning that they can carry more load" explains Yunyin Lin, a PhD student in Professors Peijs and Bastiaansen's team.
The disk was found underwater at the Sodré shipwreck site, and contained iconic Portuguese imagery still found on the flag of Portugal.Laser imagery from scientists at the University of Warwick in the United Kingdom has now revealed scale markers along the disk’s edges, confirming that it was in fact an early navigational tool.Astrolabes were instruments used by mariners beginning in the late 15th century to determine latitude, which they did by pointing the disk at the Sun and reading the markings on its sides.The ships were part of a subfleet of the Portuguese armada on a trip to India led by Vasco da Gama in 1502-1503, commanded by da Gama’s uncles Vicente and Brás Sodré.They’d anchored by Al Hallaniyah to find shelter from the seasonal monsoon winds—but a particularly strong wind sunk the ship, killing many of its sailors and Vicente Sodré.(You can read more about the history of the wreck in the paper, “An Early Portuguese Mariner’s Astrolabe from the Sodré Wreck‐site, Al Hallaniyah, Oman,” published in the International Journal of Nautical Archaeology.)
Quantum computers are designed to process information using quantum bits, and promise huge speedups in scientific computing and codebreakingCurrent prototype devices are publicly accessible but highly error prone: information can 'leak' into unwanted statesComputer program designed and run by University of Warwick physicists can tell when a quantum computer is 'leaking'Results will inform the development of future quantum computers and error correction techniquesA new computer program that spots when information in a quantum computer is escaping to unwanted states will give users of this promising technology the ability to check its reliability without any technical knowledge for the first time.Researchers from the University of Warwick's Department of Physics have developed a quantum computer program to detect the presence of 'leakage', where information being processed by a quantum computer escapes from the states of 0 and 1.
University of Warwick third year engineering undergraduates have in recent years been set the task of the examining the puzzle of why Aspen leaves quiver in the presence of a slightest breeze.University of Warwick Engineering researchers Sam Tucker Harvey, Dr Igor A. Khovanov, and Dr Petr Denissenko were inspired to look more closely at this task they were annually setting for their students and to take the phenomenon one step further.They decided to investigate whether the underlying mechanisms that produce the low wind speed quiver in Aspen leaves could efficiently and effectively generate electrical power, simply by exploiting the wind generated mechanical movement of a device modelled on the leaf.They have today 18th March 2019 published the answer to that question as a paper entitled "A Galloping Energy Harvester with Flow Attachment" in Applied Physics Letters and the answer is a resounding yes.University of Warwick PhD engineering researcher Sam Tucker Harvey, the lead author on the paper, said:"What's most appealing about this mechanism is that it provides a mechanical means of generating power without the use of bearings, which can cease to work in environments with extreme cold, heat, dust or sand.
Guinness World Records have independently certified an astrolabe excavated from the wreck site of a Portuguese Armada Ship that was part of Vasco da Gama's second voyage to India in 1502-1503 as the oldest in the world, and have separately certified a ship's bell (dated 1498) recovered from the same wreck site also as the oldest in the world.The scientific process of verifying the disc as an astrolabe by laser imaging is described in a paper published today by Mearns and Jason Warnett and Mark Williams of WMG at the University of Warwick in the International Journal of Nautical Archaeology.The Sodré astrolabe has made it into the Guinness Book of world records is believed to have been made between 1496 and 1501 and is unique in comparison to all other mariner's astrolabes.Mariner's Astrolabes were used for navigating at sea by early explorers, most notably the Portuguese and Spanish.The thin 175 mm diameter disk weighing 344 grams was analysed by a team from WMG who travelled to Muscat, Oman in November 2016 to collect laser scans of a selection of the most important artefacts recovered from the wreck site.Analysis of the results revealed a series of 18 scale marks spaced at uniform intervals along the limb of the disk.
It’s straightforward enough (if you’re fluent), but not every case is so clear-cut.Interpreting ancient languages involves guesswork about semantics, as well as polysemy (the coexistence of many possible meanings for a word or phrase), and context.Researchers at the Alan Turing Institute, the University of Warwick, the University of Helsinki, and Amazon propose a novel solution in a newly published paper.The idea involves neural networks, or layered mathematical functions that model biological neurons.AI systems that model semantic change aren’t new, per se — researchers have employed a range of topic-based and graph-based natural language processing models for interpretation tasks.But the authors note that few focus on ancient languages and most don’t account for language variation features.
Researchers at Oxford and Warwick have carried out the first study of how family time has changed since the rapid diffusion of smartphones and other mobile devicesScientists looked at data from around 2,500 children aged between 8 and 16 and their parentsFamily time spent at home increased by 30 minutes a day between 2000 and 2015, but time spent in shared activities like eating and watching TV remained unchanged.Mobile devices were used during all aspects of family time in 2015 but were most heavily used during alone-together time.The first study of the impact of digital mobile devices on different aspects of family time in the UK has found that children are spending more time at home with their parents rather than less - but not in shared activities such as watching tv and eating.Researchers from Oxford University and the University of Warwick found alone-together time has increased by nearly 30 minutes a day between 2000 and 2015, a period which saw the rapid diffusion of high-quality home internet and personal mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.
Dr. Segata explains: «We genetically characterized and catalogued a large number of bacteria and archaea that are part of the human microbiome, but remained so far unexplored, uncharacterized, and undescribed.We also observed that many of these microbes tend to be only rarely identified in Westernized populations, most probably as a indirect consequence of the complex industrialization processes».Similarly to other living organisms, microbes evolve and are under selection pressure as the environment, including diet and lifestyle, changes.He explains: «It's the collection of bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi, and parasites that populate human body sites such as the gut, the mouth, the skin, and the urogenital tract.The human microbiome is in symbiosis with our own cells and plays a key role for our health, for example, in the metabolism of dietary compounds, in regulating the so-called gut-brain-axis, in protecting us from pathogenic agents, and in modulating our immune system.From a drop of saliva, a skin swab, or a gram of stool they extract the total DNA of the microbes in the sample, and they subject the DNA to high-throughput sequencing.
The UK Space Agency has revealed plans to provide funding worth £7m to a new space weather mission, called the Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer (SMILE).SMILE will study how solar wind affects the Earth's magnetosphere and the impact on satelites, power grids and communications networks.It brings the UK Space Agency's total investment in the project to £10m and will be used to build upon work completed by universities around the country already in the design and development cutting-edge space science.Read more: China backs Huawei's bid to sue United StatesA second mission was also announced in which the UK has agreed with partners including the European Space Agency to search for Earth-like planets orbiting alien stars.The UK Space Agency has invested £25m into the Planetary Transits and Oscillations of stars (PLATO) mission, which is being led by the University of Warwick.
Mums and dads shouldn’t expect their sleep habits to bounce back to the way they were before kids for at least the first six years of their child’s life, according to a new long-term study involving nearly 5,000 parents.When my own children were very young, I convinced myself that my sleep would never return to the way it was before I became a parent.My kids are all grown up now, and I can honestly say my sleep patterns are finally back to normal – but wow did it ever take a while.“This study is particularly informative due to its approach of systematically following the same group of people prospectively over time, thus avoiding many of the limitations other study designs encounter.”As the new study noted, diminished and interrupted sleep peaks during the first three months after a child’s birth – a challenging time when babies are fussy and in need of near-constant attention.During this initial three-month period, mothers said they were getting one hour less sleep than before, while fathers were getting 15 minutes less sleep on average.
Mechanical ventilation of children in intensive care units is often necessary, but can damage the lungs of critically ill patientsIt's possible to change ventilator settings to reduce the risk of damage without putting child patients at risk, according to engineering researchers at the University of WarwickThey successfully tested their new treatment strategies on simulated patients using data from real patients collected at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, published in the journal Intensive Care MedicineChanging the ventilation settings for children on life support can reduce the risk of damage to their lungs, researchers at the University of Warwick and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia have found on computer simulated patients.Paediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (PARDS) is one of the most challenging diseases for doctors to manage in the pediatric intensive care unit, and can arise due to several different causes, such as pneumonia, sepsis, trauma, and drowning.Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving medical intervention for many such patients, but the forces and stresses applied by the ventilator can themselves further damage the lungs (so-called ventilator induced lung injury - VILI).
New theory and understanding of how liquid nano-jets breakup into dropletsComputer simulations of molecules show how droplets from a "nano-tap" would differ from those produced by a household tap 1 million times largerResearchers at the University of Warwick have re-written the classical 19th century text-book theory of breakup to capture dominant nanoscale physicsApplications are to emerging 21st century nano-technologies: next generation ink-jet printing, drug delivery, and lab-on-chip devices that diagnose infections and diseases in situDroplets emanating from a molecular "nano-tap" would behave very differently from those from a household tap 1 million times larger - researchers at the University of Warwick have found.This is potentially crucial step for a number of emerging nano technologies, e.g., manufacture of nano-sized drug particles, lab-on-chip devices for in situ diagnostics, and 3D printers capable of nanoscale resolution.
The aim is now to further enhance the technique and enable it to start being taken up by dating services within the next couple of years, helping them to prevent profiles being posted by scammers.With Valentine's Day fast approaching, the news that these Artificial Intelligence (AI) capabilities have the potential to help thwart so-called 'rom-con' scams will be very welcome to the millions of people who use online dating services in the UK and worldwide.In these scams, fraudsters target users of dating websites and apps, 'groom' them and then ask for gifts of money or loans which will never be returned.In 2017, over 3,000 Britons lost a total of £41 million in such incidents, with an average loss of £11,500.It formed just one aspect of an overall research initiative that has also involved King's College London, Cardiff University and partners worldwide and has aimed at boosting efforts to detect and prevent mass fraud that exploits online channels.Professor Sorell says: "Online dating fraud is a very common, often unreported crime that causes huge distress and embarrassment for victims as well as financial loss.
Smartish system has a good stab at prioritizing patients, has problems deciding what's critical, thoArtificially intelligent software can help slash the wait times for patients anxious to see the results of their X-ray scans, it is claimed.Long waiting times are the bane of hospitals worldwide.And, so, researchers from the King’s College London and the University of Warwick in old Blighty believe they can alleviate the X-ray results backlog by using a mixture of computer vision and natural language processing techniques.Essentially, trained software looks at someone's X-ray scan and suggests whether they should be seen immediately and given their results, or made to wait in a queue with others, based on how serious their condition is.“The increasing clinical demands on radiology departments worldwide has challenged current service delivery models, particularly in publicly-funded healthcare systems,” said Giovanni Montana, coauthor of the research published in Radiology and a professor at Warwick, earlier this week.
OAK BROOK, Ill. - An artificial intelligence (AI) system can interpret and prioritize abnormal chest X-rays with critical findings, potentially reducing the backlog of exams and bringing urgently needed care to patients more quickly, according to a study appearing in the journal Radiology.The number of exams can create significant backlogs at health care facilities."Currently there are no systematic and automated ways to triage chest X-rays and bring those with critical and urgent findings to the top of the reporting pile," said study co-author Giovanni Montana, Ph.D., formerly of King's College London in London and currently at the University of Warwick in Coventry, England.Deep learning (DL), a type of AI capable of being trained to recognize subtle patterns in medical images, has been proposed as an automated means to reduce this backlog and identify exams that merit immediate attention, particularly in publicly-funded health care systems.The radiologic reports were pre-processed using Natural Language Processing (NLP), an important algorithm of the AI system that extracts labels from written text.For each X-ray, the researchers' in-house system required a list of labels indicating which specific abnormalities were visible on the image.
New research has found that a novel Artificial Intelligence (AI) system can dramatically reduce the time needed to ensure that abnormal chest X-rays with critical findings will receive an expert radiologist opinion sooner, cutting the average delay from 11 days to less than 3 days.Chest X-rays are routinely performed to diagnose and monitor a wide range of conditions affecting the lungs, heart, bones, and soft tissues.Researchers from WMG at the University of Warwick, working with Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Hospitals, extracted a dataset of half million anonymised adult chest radiographs (X-rays) and developed an AI system for computer vision that can recognise radiological abnormalities in the X-rays in real-time and suggest how quickly these exams should be reported by a radiologist.In the process of building the AI system, the team developed and validated a Natural Language Processing (NLP) algorithm that can read a radiological report, understand the findings mentioned by the reporting radiologist, and automatically infer the priority level of the exam.The research team, led by Professor Giovanni Montana, Chair in Data Science in WMG at the University of Warwick, found that normal chest radiographs were detected with a positive predicted value of 73% and a negative predicted value of 99%, and at a speed that meant that abnormal radiographs with critical findings could be prioritised to receive an expert radiologist opinion much sooner than the usual practice.The results of the research are published today, 22nd January 2019 in the leading journal Radiology in a paper entitled "Automated triaging and prioritization of adult chest radiographs using deep artificial neural networks."
Radiologists are drowning in x-rays.The electromagnetic scans account for a whopping 40 percent of all diagnostic imaging worldwide, and in the U.K. alone, there are an estimated 330,000 x-rays at any given time that have waited more than a month for a report.Fortunately, artificial intelligence (AI) promises to shrink the backlog substantially.In a new study published in the journal Radiology, scientists at the University of Warwick describe a system that can automatically prioritize x-rays, picking out scans in urgent need of attention.“Currently there are no systematic and automated ways to triage chest x-rays and bring those with critical and urgent findings to the top of the reporting pile,” Giovanni Montana, who coauthored the study, said in a statement.The researchers sourced a database of 470,388 adult chest x-rays that had been stripped of identifying information and annotated.