In 1929, Virginia Woolf observed that the books men had written about women offered a strange idea of womanhood.

In these early years of digital culture, a new version of this old duality is becoming apparent, whereby women are simultaneously idolised and despised.

A 2014 survey by the Pew Research Center about online harassment found that women aged between 18 and 24 are almost twice as likely as their male peers to be sexually harassed and four times as likely as the general internet population.

Misogyny has migrated from the physical world to cyberspace.

The writer Lindy West expresses a grim sense of resignation, saying, "Being insulted online is part of my job," while emphasising that the resulting pain feels "exactly like you would imagine it would feel to have someone call you a fat cunt every day of your life".

For the corporations that harvest our data, a pregnant woman is especially prized because online advertisers regard her as a bonanza of long-term-buying potential.

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