The transition towards sustainable biobased chemical production is important for green growth, but productivity and yield of engineered cells frequently decrease in large industry-scale fermentation.

This barrier to commercialization of more bioprocesses is largely ascribed to the physical inefficacies of large cubic-meter steel tanks.

We can use this insight to redesign our cell factories to produce more efficiently at industrial large-scale," says Morten Sommer, Professor and Scientific Director of the Bacterial Synthetic Biology section at the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability, Technical University of Denmark.

"Evolution of non-productive cell subpopulations leads to loss of production in our case studies.

The speed of evolution depends on the biochemical product, but it can definitely happen within industrial time-scales.

This makes it difficult to scale-up biobased processes" says Peter Rugbjerg, Postdoc at the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability.

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