One of the latest additions to the network, the Advanced Regenerative Manufacturing Institute, has received $ 80 million from the Department of Defense (DoD) to “print” human tissues and organs for military and civilian patients.

Like the rest of the network, this state-of-the-art institute wants to bridge the gap between scientific research and the establishment of large-scale production activities.

The printing of spare parts, especially metal, is also booming thanks to US start-ups raising tens – or hundreds – of millions of dollars in 2017, such as Desktop Metal, Mark forged and Divergent 3D.

Beyond the economic, societal and regulatory issues, research continues to progress: MIT is now working on 4D printing to achieve objects capable of changing shape or properties over time.

President Obama placed the renaissance of the manufacturing sector as a major theme of his political action, both in his speech and in the intervention of the federal state in politics with the rescue plan of the automobile industry.

3D printing, associated with the digital production chain, challenges the dominant model of past decades, relying on global production chains where part of the production activities and assembly are located in emerging countries with low labor costs.

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