People with chronic diseases like arthritis, diabetes and heart disease may one day forego the daily regimen of pills and, instead, receive a scheduled dosage of medication through a grape-sized implant that is remotely controlled.Researchers from Houston Methodist successfully delivered continuous, predetermined dosages of two chronic disease medications using a nanochannel delivery system (nDS) that they remotely controlled using Bluetooth technology.A proof-of-concept paper recently published in Lab on a Chip (online June 25) explains how the Houston Methodist nanomedicine researchers accomplished long-term delivery of drugs for rheumatoid arthritis and high blood pressure, medications that are often administered at specific times of the day or at varying dosages based on patient needs.This device could vastly improve their disease management and prevent them from missing doses, simply with a medical professional overseeing their treatment remotely," said Alessandro Grattoni, Ph.D., corresponding author and chair of the department of nanomedicine at Houston Methodist Research Institute.Grattoni and the Houston Methodist researchers have worked on implantable nanochannel delivery systems to regulate the delivery of a variety of therapies for medical issues ranging from HIV-prevention to cancer.With each setting, a specific voltage was applied to a silicon nanochannel within the implant to control drug release.
Microdata from Swedish population registers provide new insights into cities' economic growth paths.The data reveal a surge in regional inequality, with more and more resources flowing to cities atop the urban hierarchy, which thus acquire an increasing share of national wealth.Cities of different sizes are seen as scaled copies of one another, expected to go through similar lifecycles of socioeconomic growth - only in different historical epochs.In this perspective, cities follow parallel growth trajectories and, as an urban system grows in wealth and people, the relative inequality between cities remains stable.The notion that cities grow completely in parallel appears empirically ill-founded as it is derived from datasets that only cover larger metropolitan areas.It misses out on small towns, many of which face a struggling economy and sustained out-migration of young and educated individuals", says Dr Marc Keuschnigg who is an Associate Professor at Linkoping University's Institute for Analytical Sociology.
Researchers drew attention three years ago when they reported that a two-dimensional perovskite - a material with a specific crystal structure - composed of cesium, lead and bromine emitted a strong green light.Crystals that produce light on the green spectrum are desirable because green light, while valuable in itself, can also be relatively easily converted to other forms that emit blue or red light, making it especially important for optical applications ranging from light-emitting devices to sensitive diagnostic tools.But there was no agreement about how the crystal, CsPB2Br5, produced the green photoluminescence.Now, however, researchers from the United States, Mexico and China, led by an electrical engineer from the University of Houston, have reported in the journal Advanced Materials they have used sophisticated optical and high-pressure diamond anvil cell techniques to determine not only the mechanism for the light emission but also how to replicate it.While CsPbBr3, the base crystal, is three-dimensional and appears green under ultraviolet light, the new material, CsPB2Br5, has a layered structure and is optically inactive.At the time, there were two schools of scientific thought on the light emission from the cesium crystal: that it emitted green light due to a defect, mainly a lack of bromine, rather than the material itself, or that a variation had unintentionally been introduced, resulting in the emission.
NEW YORK, June 24, 2019 -- Quantum computers, which use light particles (photons) instead of electrons to transmit and process data, hold the promise of a new era of research in which the time needed to realize lifesaving drugs and new technologies will be significantly shortened.Photons are promising candidates for quantum computation because they can propagate across long distances without losing information, but when they are stored in matter they become fragile and susceptible to decoherence.Now researchers with the Photonics Initiative at the Advanced Science Research Center (ASRC) at The Graduate Center, CUNY have developed a new protocol for storing and releasing a single photon in an embedded eigenstate -- a quantum state that is virtually unaffected by loss and decoherence.The novel protocol, detailed in the current issue of Optica, aims to advance the development of quantum computers."The goal is to store and release single photons on demand by simultaneously ensuring the stability of data," said Andrea Alù, founding director of the ASRC Photonics Initiative and Einstein Professor of Physics at The Graduate Center.They investigate a system composed of an atom and a cavity -- the latter of which is partially open and therefore would normally allow light trapped in the system to leak out and be quickly lost.
Often times, we experience an incident where a speech recognition application is activated in the middle of a meeting or a conversation in the office.Sometimes, it is not activated at all regardless of numbers of times we call out the application.It is because a mobile phone uses a microphone which detects sound pressure to recognize voice, and it is easily affected by surrounding noise and other obstacles.Professor Kilwon Cho of Chemical Engineering and Professor Yoonyoung Chung of Electronic and Electric Engineering from POSTECH successfully developed a flexible and wearable vibration responsive sensor.When this sensor is attached to a neck, it can precisely recognize voice through vibration of the neck skin and is not affected by ambient noise or the volume of sound.The conventional vibration sensors recognize voice through air vibration and the sensitivity decreases due to mechanical resonance and damping effect, therefore are not capable of measuring voices quantitatively.
The University of Liverpool (UoL) and the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM) have been awarded £3.54m for a research project that aims to develop a 'personalised health' approach to prevent and treat antimicrobial resistance (AMR).Resistance to all antimicrobials, and especially bacterial resistance to existing antibiotics, is increasing.It is now posing a serious threat to health both in the UK and globally, and risks undermining the major improvements in medicine that have been made in recent decades.This new project will focus on personalised antimicrobial therapy as a way to prevent and treat AMR.The funding will enable equipment to be purchased for real time measurement of drug concentrations in patients, rapid sequencing of bacteria from patients, performing pharmacogenetic analyses and real time pharmacodynamic analyses.These approaches will be unified using artificial intelligence and deep learning in collaboration with the University of Liverpool's Department of Computer Science.
In free space, the light wave of a laser beam propagates on a perfectly straight line.In the presence of a disordered, irregular environment a very strange phenomenon occurs: An incoming wave splits into several paths, it branches in a complicated way, reaching some places with high intensity, while avoiding others almost completely.This kind of "branched flow" has first been observed in 2001.Scientists at TU Wien (Vienna) have now developed a method to exploit this effect.The results have now been published in the journal PNAS.From Quantum Particles to Tsunamis
Carnegie Mellon University physicist Rachel Mandelbaum has been named a 2019 Simons Investigator by the Simons Foundation.The Simons Investigator program provides research support to outstanding scientists, enabling them to undertake the long-term study of fundamental questions.Mandelbaum is the first Carnegie Mellon researcher to be selected for this prestigious program.This source of support will be of great value to my research group during the next five years, which will be particularly exciting times as we explore many questions in cosmology with new datasets," Mandelbaum said.Mandelbaum, a professor in the Department of Physics and a member of the McWilliams Center for Cosmology, seeks to better understand the universe - how it started and how it came to be as it is today.Specifically, Mandelbaum studies weak gravitational lensing, which looks at distortions in images of distant galaxies obtained by telescopes.
PHILADELPHIA (June 24, 2019) - New research from the Monell Center analyzed nearly 400,000 food reviews posted by Amazon customers to gain real-world insight into the food choices that people make.The findings reveal that many people find the foods in today's marketplace to be too sweet."Sweet was the most frequently mentioned taste quality and the reviewers definitively told us that human food is over-sweetened."The study used data posted on an open-source data science site to examine 393,568 unique food reviews of 67,553 products posted by 256,043 Amazon customers over a 10-year period.Using a sophisticated statistical modeling program to identify words related to taste, texture, odor, spiciness, cost, health, and customer service, the scientists computed the number of reviews that mentioned each of these categories."Reading and synthesizing almost 400,000 reviews would essentially be impossible for a human team, but recent developments in machine learning gave us the ability to understand both which words are present and also their underlying semantic meaning," said study coauthor Joel Mainland, PhD, an olfactory neurobiologist at Monell.
One of the most challenging issues for game players looks to be resolved soon with the introduction of a zero-latency gaming environment.A KAIST team developed a technology that helps game players maintain zero-latency performance.The new technology transforms the shapes of game design according to the amount of latency.Latency in human-computer interactions is often caused by various factors related to the environment and performance of the devices, networks, and data processing.The term 'lag' is used to refer to any latency during gaming which impacts the user's performance.Professor Byungjoo Lee at the Graduate School of Culture Technology in collaboration with Aalto University in Finland presented a mathematical model for predicting players' behavior by understanding the effects of latency on players.
HANOVER, N.H. - June 24, 2019 -Using smartphones, fitness bracelets and a custom app, researchers have created a mobile-sensing system that judges employee performance.The new mobile-sensing system opens the way for consumer technology to help employees optimize their performance while also allowing companies to assess how individuals are doing in their jobs.The approach can be both a complement and alternative to traditional performance tools like interviews and self-evaluations."This is a radically new approach to evaluating workplace performance using passive sensing data from phones and wearables," said Andrew Campbell, a professor of computer science at Dartmouth.In the new system, a smartphone tracks physical activity, location, phone usage and ambient light.A wearable fitness tracker monitors heart functions, sleep, stress, and body measurements like weight and calorie consumption.
For the first time, scientists have been able to study how well synthetic bone grafts stand up to the rigors and 'strains' of life, and how quickly they help bone re-grow and repair.Researchers led by Dr Gianluca Tozzi, at the University of Portsmouth, are the first to examine the strains between bone and graft from animal models in 3D and in microscopic detail.Dr Tozzi hopes this window on to living bone grafts will help scientists find ways to improve the body's ability to regrow its own bone, and more chance surgeons can predict the success of a synthetic graft.Fragile bones break easily and are also more difficult to repair, particularly when the defect area is extended.It's vital we understand what is happening where bone meets graft so we can better engineer sophisticated replacement materials."Bones are very complex biological tissues and a synthetic bone substitute needs to have specific requirements to allow blood supply and encourage new bone growth.
An online game in which people play the role of propaganda producers to help them identify real world disinformation has been shown to increase "psychological resistance" to fake news, according to a study of 15,000 participants.Players stoke anger and fear by manipulating news and social media within the simulation: deploying twitter bots, photo-shopping evidence, and inciting conspiracy theories to attract followers - all while maintaining a "credibility score" for persuasiveness."Research suggests that fake news spreads faster and deeper than the truth, so combatting disinformation after-the-fact can be like fighting a losing battle," said Dr Sander van der Linden, Director of the Cambridge Social Decision-Making Lab."We wanted to see if we could pre-emptively debunk, or 'pre-bunk', fake news by exposing people to a weak dose of the methods used to create and spread disinformation, so they have a better understanding of how they might be deceived.Yet the game made no difference to how users ranked real news.The researchers also found that those who registered as most susceptible to fake news headlines at the outset benefited most from the "inoculation".
A new technology discovered by UConn School of Dental Medicine researchers records cellular communication in real time - providing a closer look into the dynamics of cell secretion and a greater understanding of how cells repair tissue.In a study published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Kshitiz Gupta, an assistant professor (who goes by just his first name), and Yashir Suhail, a postdoctoral fellow, in the Dental School's Department of Biomedical Engineering, unlocked a breakthrough technology platform.Whereas humans exchange words, cells deliver and receive messages through secreting proteins and changing their behavior accordingly.When we listen to humans speak to each other, we can understand how words are placed into sentences and how the conversation moves back and forth.Communication between cells is necessary to maintain most functions in the body and can also help the body properly respond to an external cue - such as an ailment or injury.Current technology only allows broad snapshots of these protein secretions.
Graphene is the thinnest and strongest material known to humans.It's also flexible, transparent and conducts heat and electricity 10 times better than copper, making it ideal for anything from flexible nanoelectronics to better fuel cells.The new approach by researchers from RMIT University (Australia) and the National Institute of Technology, Warangal (India), uses Eucalyptus bark extract and is cheaper and more sustainable than current synthesis methods.RMIT lead researcher, Distinguished Professor Suresh Bhargava, said the new method could reduce the cost of production from $USD100 per gram to a staggering $USD0.5 per gram."Eucalyptus bark extract has never been used to synthesise graphene sheets before and we are thrilled to find that it not only works, it's in fact a superior method, both in terms of safety and overall cost," said Bhargava."Our approach could bring down the cost of making graphene from around $USD100 per gram to just 50 cents, increasing it availability to industries globally and enabling the development of an array of vital new technologies."
Before and after comparisons don't tell the full story of chemical reactions in flowing fluids, such as those in chemical reactor, according to a new study from a collaboration based in Japan.The researchers published their paper on May 6 in the Journal of Physical Chemistry B, a journal of the American Chemical Society.The results were featured on the journal's cover.The team examined how a solution of dissolved polymers changed after the addition of Fe3+ solution.These types of solutions are used to better control variables in several fields, including manufacturing.In automobile manufacturing, for instance, the solutions help achieve a thorough evenness of paint coverage and control over how much a material expands or contracts under various temperatures.
Children need protection when using programmable Internet computing devices - and Lancaster University scientists have drawn up new guidelines to help designers build in safeguards.Young people are growing up in a digital world where everyday objects contain sensors and stream data to and from the Internet - a trend known collectively as the Internet of Things (IoT).Children are also getting hands-on - using small-scale easy-to-program devices such as the BBC micro:bit to experiment and get creative with digital technologies.These kinds of devices are very useful educational tools that children are using to build their knowledge and digital skills - and the developers of the BBC micro:bit took a very considered ethical approach to developing their device.However, unless properly considered, Internet-connected devices can present risks to children and others around them.These risks can include peer-to-peer abuse or bullying, dangers of abuse by adults, as well as risks related to the use, exploitation, commercialisation, or insecure management of any data the children generate by using the devices.
The objective of this collaboration is the experimentation of 5G technologies in the context of Metrology 4.0 Zero Defect manufacturing (ZDM) services and solutions for Industry 4.0.For these purposes, Innovalia will contribute to the collaboration providing access to Metrology 4.0 equipment, digital manufacturing platforms and a team with the ability to balance 5G development needs with current and future metrology services.Some of these activities will be funded by the recently granted Horizon 2020 European project 5G GROWTH, where Innovalia and several 5TONIC members are partners.Working alongside 5TONIC member companies Telefónica, Ericsson, IMDEA Networks and University Carlos III Madrid, Innovalia will test the use of the 5G networks for improving metrology applications in factories, taking advantage of the flexibility, reliability and high capacity of the generation of mobile communications.Innovalia has grown and developed its business in four areas: Consulting, Metrology, Information Society and Technological Development.The mission of Innovalia is to become an international reference on these areas, through the development of new highly technological products and the execution of projects based on open and flexible collaboration between cooperating companies and their multidisciplinary capacities.
With the wearable electronic device market having firmly established itself in the 21st century, active research is being conducted on electronic textiles,1 which are textiles (e.g.Fabric-based items are flexible and can be worn comfortably all day, making them the ideal platform for wearable electronic devices.The research team of Dr. Jung-ah Lim of the Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST, president: Byung-gwon Lee) announced that it has developed a fibrous transistor2 that has a fiber structure, giving it the characteristics of a textile while allowing it to be inserted into clothing and retain an adequate level of functionality even after being washed.Existing technology involves physically attaching a solid electronic device (sensor, etc.)to the surface of clothing or using conductive textiles to connect various devices, with little to no attention paid to the wearer's comfort.Electrodes made in this manner require a high voltage in order to be activated, but the low current that is generated is often insufficient to activate display devices (LED, etc.).
PSCs which are one of the fastest developing new solar technologies and can achieve efficiencies comparable to more commonly used commercially available silicon solar cells.For the first time, an international team of clean chemistry researchers led by Professor Joseph Shapter and Flinders University, has made very thin phosphorene nanosheets for low-temperature PSCs using the rapid shear stress of the University's revolutionary vortex fluidic device (VFD)."Silicon is currently the standard for rooftop solar, and other solar panels, but they take a lot of energy to produce them."We've found exciting new way to convert exfoliated black phosphorus into phosphorene which can help produce more efficient and also potentially cheaper solar cells," says Dr Christopher Gibson, from the College of Science and Engineering at Flinders University."Our latest experiments have improved the potential of phosphene in solar cells, showing an extra efficiency of 2%-3% in electricity production."Research into making high quality 2D phosphorene in large quantities- along with other future materials such as graphene - are paving the way to more efficient and sustainable production with the use of the SA-made VFD, near-infrared laser light pulses, and even an industrial-scale microwave oven.