Professor Daniel Nocera and his team have created a bionic leaf which uses the sun s energy to split water molecules and hydrogen-eating bacteria to produce liquid fuels.Before, people were using artificial photosynthesis for water-splitting, but this is a true A-to-Z system, and we ve gone well over the efficiency of photosynthesis in nature.Jessica Polka/Silver LabBefore the team were able to create hydrogen but with a electricity bill to boot.But I also want to bring this technology to the developing world as well.Pamela Silver, who co-authored the paper with Nocera and the team, explains: The beauty of biology is it s the world s greatest chemist — biology can do chemistry we can t do easily, she said.With hydrogen vehicles now increasing worldwide as an alternative to fossil and purely electric cars this new process could have wide repercussions for their success on a global scale.
Two Harvard researcher Daniel Nocera and Pamela Silver has developed a way to extract liquid fuel from sunlight, carbon dioxide and water - artificial photosynthesis. It reports the MIT Technology Review. Bill Gates has said that to solve our energy problems, we must do the photosynthesis of plants do, and sometime we might make it more efficient than plants. Now is the day here. It says Daniel Nocera told the newspaper. Here you can read the study.
Scientists Daniel Nocera and Pamela Silver from Harvard have created what they call a bionic leaf that is able to use solar energy to split water molecules and hydrogen-eating bacteria to produce liquid fuel."Before, people were using artificial photosynthesis for water-splitting, but this is a true A-to-Z system, and we ve gone well over the efficiency of photosynthesis in nature."One challenge that the team has to overcome was caused by the nickel-molybdenum zinc alloy that created reactive oxygen species, which are molecules that attacked and destroyed the bacteria's DNA."For this paper, we designed a new cobalt-phosphorous alloy catalyst, which we showed does not make reactive oxygen species," Nocera said.Nocera says that while there may be room to improve efficiency, the system is efficient enough as it is to consider possible commercial applications.The research in this project was sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, and the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering.
we Grow food in space in the future?Food in space, bleeding vegetarian burger and selfie-help.Here are the latest tekniknyheterna.In the future, it is hoped that the traveler will be able to grow and eat in their own spacecraft.Vetenskapsradion reports that the researchers will use artificial photosynthesis to create an ecosystem in space.There will be a copy of the photosynthesis from green plants, algae, and bacteria that have made the earth, the ecosystems in which we humans can survive.
we Grow food in space in the future?Food in space, cultivated vegetarian burger and selfie-help.Here are the latest tekniknyheterna.In the future, it is hoped that the traveler will be able to grow and eat in their own spacecraft.Vetenskapsradion reports that the researchers will use artificial photosynthesis to create an ecosystem in space.There will be a copy of the photosynthesis from green plants, algae, and bacteria that have made the earth, the ecosystems in which we humans can survive.
Remove enough CO2 from the air and scientists could prevent the harmful greenhouse effect -- and keep the planet healthy.Scientists at the University of Central Florida have discovered a method for triggering artificial photosynthesis using a synthetic material — opening up a new way to both generate energy and also convert greenhouse gases into clean air.“The practical applications of this work include the development of future technology that will transform CO2 (carbon dioxide) into useful materials, including what we call ‘solar fuel,’” Dr. Fernando Uribe-Romo, a research professor who worked on the project, told Digital Trends.“This is very important because at the rate we currently emit CO2, plants on earth are not able to fixate this CO2 back into the earth — resulting in accumulation in the atmosphere, which is why we have global warming.”The work involved the preparation of materials called metal-organic frameworks (MOFs).These materials contain nanometer-sized holes small enough to absorb carbon dioxide.
That visit later became a report on how JCAP had strategically moved from water splitting to carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction in its efforts to achieve artificial photosynthesis.Just before I left the JCAP facilities at Berkeley Labs, I was ferried over to meet with Haimei Zheng, a staff scientist in Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division.Zheng claimed that she and her colleagues had completed—but had not yet published—research in which they had managed to crack the big problem of byproduct selectivity in CO2 reduction.The main issue with carbon dioxide reduction is that it usually produces a soup of different products when what you really want is a specific fuel, like ethanol.In carbon dioxide reduction, you want to come away with one product, not a mix of different things.”The JCAP approach, called photoelectrochemical reduction, exploits the band gap of a semiconductor material to generate an electron-and-hole pair when it is struck by a photon with an energy level that is higher than the bandgap of the semiconductor.
However, another feature of the bacteria is that it is naturally inclined to become a cyborg, so to speak.“It's actually a natural, overlooked feature of their biology,” explains Sakimoto in an e-mail interview with IEEE Spectrum.So when we introduce cadmium ions into the growth medium that M. thermoacetica is hanging out in, it will convert the amino acid cysteine into sulfide, which precipitates out cadmium as cadmium sulfide.The crystals then assemble and stick onto the bacterium through normal electrostatic interactions.”While Sakimoto and his colleagues were able to leverage an overlooked property of these bacteria, they remained somewhat uncertain on how the bacteria operated in its superpower cyborg state.To provide a bit of background into photoelectrochemical reduction of CO2, semiconductor materials have a bandgap that generates an electron-and-hole pair when it is struck by a photon with an energy level that is higher than the bandgap of the semiconductor.
Cyborgbakterier covered with nanoparticles that works like minimal solar panels turn the natural process of photosynthesis, converting sunlight to useful chemical compounds.the Concept of artificial photosynthesis is not new.Many researchers have tried to generate renewable energy and produce simple chemical compounds on the way.Now Kelsey Sakimoto, researchers at the University of California, created cyborgbakterier which he believes beats the natural photosynthesis in the conversion efficiency.the term cyborg brings to mind science fiction, but actually means an organism that consists of both biological tissue and synthetic parts.in Order to produce cyborgbakterierna used Kelsey Sakimoto the naturally occurring bacterium Moorella thermoacetica, which produces acetic acid.
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago and the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis have determined how electrocatalysts can convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide using water and electricity.The discovery can lead to the development of efficient electrocatalysts for large scale production of synthesis gas -- a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen."The electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to fuels is a subject of considerable interest because it offers a means for storing electricity from energy sources such as wind and solar radiation in the form of chemical bonds," said Meenesh Singh, assistant professor of chemical engineering and lead author on the study published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.During his postdoctoral research at the University of California, Berkeley, Singh studied artificial photosynthesis and was part of a team that developed artificial leaves that, when exposed to direct sunlight, were capable of converting carbon dioxide to fuels.In his latest research, Singh developed a state-of-the-art multiscale model that unites a quantum-chemical analysis of reaction pathway; a microkinetic model of the reaction dynamics; and a continuum model for transport of species in the electrolyte to learn precisely how carbon dioxide can be electrochemically reduced through a catalyst, in this case silver, and made into carbon monoxide.While the most plausible reaction pathway is usually identified from quantum-chemical calculation of the lowest free-energy pathway, this approach can be misleading when coverages of adsorbed species differ significantly, Singh said.
A new catalyst created by U of T Engineering researchers brings them one step closer to artificial photosynthesis -- a system that, just like plants, would use renewable energy to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) into stored chemical energy.You can use batteries to store energy, but a battery isn't going to power an airplane across the Atlantic or heat a home all winter: for that you need fuels."As in plants, their system consists of two linked chemical reactions: one that splits H2O into protons and oxygen gas, and another that converts CO2 into carbon monoxide, or CO. (The CO can then be converted into hydrocarbon fuels through an established industrial process called Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.)"Over the last couple of years, our team has developed very high-performing catalysts for both the first and the second reactions," says Zhang, who contributed to the work while a post-doctoral fellow at U of T and is now a professor at Fudan University.Unlike the previous catalyst, this one works at neutral pH, and under those conditions it performs better than any other catalyst previously reported."It has a low overpotential, which means less electrical energy is needed to drive the reaction forward," says Zheng, who is now a postdoctoral scholar at Stanford University.
Mimicking photosynthesis in plants, using light to convert stable and abundant molecules like water and CO2 into a high energy fuel (hydrogen) or into chemicals of industrial interest, is a major research challenge today.However, achieving artificial photosynthesis in solution remains limited by the use of costly and toxic metal-based compounds to harvest light.Researchers at CNRS, CEA and the Université Grenoble Alpes propose an efficient alternative using semi-conductor nanocrystals (also called quantum dots) based on cheaper and less toxic elements, such as copper, indium and sulfur.Their work was published in Energy & Environmental Science on 10 April 2018.In artificial photosynthesis systems chromophores, or "photosensitizers", absorb light energy and transfer electrons to the catalyst, which activates the chemical reaction.Although much progress has been made in recent years in the development of catalysts devoid of noble metals, photosensitizers still rely, in the main, on molecular compounds containing rare and costly metals, such as ruthenium and iridium, or on inorganic semiconductor materials containing cadmium, a toxic metal.
Using sunlight for sustainable and cheap production of, for example, medicines.As a result, this boosts the average yield by about 20%.This is due to a clever feedback system costing less than 50 euros that automatically slows down or speeds up production.This has removed a significant practical barrier for green reactors that operate purely on sunlight.Chemists had dreamed of this possibility for ages, but the problem was that the amount of sunlight was not sufficient.Their breakthrough can be partly attributed to the use of relatively new materials (so-called luminescent solar concentrators) that seal in a specific part of the sunlight inside, in a similar way to plants that do this using special antenna molecules in their leaves.
Hydrogen is the cleanest-burning fuel, with water as its only emission.But hydrogen production is not always environmentally friendly.The method advanced by the new device, called direct solar water splitting, only uses water and light from the sun.Faqrul Alam Chowdhury, a doctoral student in electrical and computer engineering at McGill, said the problem with solar cells is that they cannot store electricity without batteries, which have a high overall cost and limited life.The device is made from the same widely used materials as solar cells and other electronics, including silicon and gallium nitride (often found in LEDs).Previous direct solar water splitters have achieved a little more than 1 percent stable solar-to-hydrogen efficiency in fresh or saltwater.
An international collaborative research group including Tokyo Institute of Technology, Universite PARIS DIDEROT and CNRS has discovered that CO2 is selectively reduced to CO when a photocatalyst composed of an organic semiconductor material and an iron complex is exposed to visible light.They have made clear that it is possible to convert CO2, the major factor of global warming, into a valuable carbon resource using visible light as the energy source, even with a photocatalyst composed of only commonly occurring elements.In recent years, technologies to reduce CO2 into a resource using metal complexes and semiconductors as photocatalysts are being developed worldwide.If this technology called artificial photosynthesis can be applied, scientists would be able to convert CO2, which is considered the major factor of global warming and is being treated as a villain, into a valuable carbon resource using sunlight as the energy source.However, considering the tremendous amount of CO2, there was a need to create new photocatalysts made only with elements widely available on Earth.Professor Osamu Ishitani, Associate Professor Kazuhiko Maeda, research staff Ryo Kuriki and others of Tokyo Tech, with the support of JST (Japan Science and Technology Agency)'s Strategic Basic Research Programs (CREST Establishment of Molecular Technology towards the Creation of New Functions) for international collaborative research projects, performed collaborative research with the research group of Professor Marc Robert of Universite PARIS DIDEROT and CNRS.
Researchers around the world are investing time and, well, energy into a process known as artificial photosynthesis.It’s a lot like how it sounds.Engineered devices take inputs like sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide (CO2), and churn out carbohydrates and oxygen, which can be used as fuel.If successful, artificial photosynthesis would be a win-win solution — it could provide a renewable source of energy and make use of CO2 sequestered from fossil fuel plants.We’re not there yet but progress over the last decade has put renewed steam into the scientific pursuit of an efficient artificial photosynthesis technique.By combining organic and synthetic parts in a process called “semi-artificial” photosynthesis, they’ve developed a proof of concept that can split water into hydrogen and oxygen using modified photosynthetic mechanisms from plants.
Scientists have reached a “milestone” in a technique of semi-artificial photosynthesis that could eventually create an “unlimited source of renewable energy,” according to a new study.Artificial photosynthesis has been around for decades, but scientists haven’t been able to develop it on a scale large enough to support an industrial level, or that could operate without the use of expensive or polluting devices.Semi-artificial photosynthesis, a relatively new field of study, aims to address those concerns by combining manmade technologies with biological processes in order to mimic nature’s method of splitting water into oxygen and hydrogen.In the latest study, researchers at the University of Cambridge focused on an enzyme found in algae called Hydrogenase – which has lied dormant for millennia.Their findings were published Sept. 3 in Nature Energy.“Hydrogenase is an enzyme present in algae that is capable of reducing protons into hydrogen,” Katarzyna Sokól, first author of the study, said in a statement.
Scientists have developed a photoelectrode that can harvest 85 percent of visible light in a 30 nanometers-thin semiconductor layer between gold layers, converting light energy 11 times more efficiently than previous methods.In the pursuit of realizing a sustainable society, there is an ever-increasing demand to develop revolutionary solar cells or artificial photosynthesis systems that utilize visible light energy from the sun while using as few materials as possible.The research team, led by Professor Hiroaki Misawa of the Research Institute for Electronic Science at Hokkaido University, has been aiming to develop a photoelectrode that can harvest visible light across a wide spectral range by using gold nanoparticles loaded on a semiconductor.But merely applying a layer of gold nanoparticles did not lead to a sufficient amount of light absorption, because they took in light with only a narrow spectral range.In the study published in Nature Nanotechnology, the research team sandwiched a semiconductor, a 30-nanometer titanium dioxide thin-film, between a 100-nanometer gold film and gold nanoparticles to enhance light absorption.When the system is irradiated by light from the gold nanoparticle side, the gold film worked as a mirror, trapping the light in a cavity between two gold layers and helping the nanoparticles absorb more light.
These material structures, which are only a few nanometers in size, display a similar behavior to that of molecules or atoms, and their form, size and number of electrons can be modulated systematically.This means that their electrical and optical characteristics can be customized for a number of target areas, such as new display technologies, biomedical applications as well as photovoltaics and photocatalysis.Fuel production using sunlight and waterAnother current line of application-oriented research aims to generate hydrogen directly from water and solar light.Hydrogen, a clean and efficient energy source, can be converted into forms of fuel that are used widely, including methanol and gasoline.The most promising types of quantum dots previously used in energy research contain cadmium, which has been banned from many commodities due to its toxicity.
Each year, the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation grants about 20 Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel Research Awards to honour scientists and scholars of still younger age (41 in case of Dr. Sugiyasu) from abroad who accomplished already international visibility in their field.The award winners are invited to conduct research projects of their choice in cooperation with colleagues at a German research institution.Kazunori Sugiyasu from Japan, who won such an award, will join Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg (JMU) in Bavaria, Germany, at the beginning of October 2018.He will be working with Professor Frank Würthner for several months at the Center for Nanosystems Chemistry to establish a long-term collaborative partnership.Artificial photosynthesis could help reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and produce energy-rich raw materials such as sugar, starch and methane gas.Achievements of the Bessel award winner