Image: NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team STScI/AURA Chances are you ve never heard of Allan Sandage, but the late astronomer was a major figure in 20th century astronomy, particularly known for his work on how stars evolve.His posthumous paper correcting the historical record has just appeared in the Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific.Since the early 1900s, astronomers had plotted each star within a cluster according to their color versus their brightness.Gamow and Adams had arrived at their insight based on a catalog of more than 4,000 stellar classifications and distances, prepared over the course of 20 years at Mount Wilson Observatory.So Gamow s insight never led to any academic paper.If this very real discovery of sub giants had been recognized at the time, we could have increased the speed at which stellar evolutionary theory was developed, Beaton said in a statement.
Study co-authors Adam Frank and Woodruff Sullivan looked at recent discoveries of potentially habitable exoplanets and considered the odds of whether sophisticated civilizations existed on them in the past or present.In 1961, astronomer Frank Drake — founder of the SETI Institute SETI stands for Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence — devised what is now known as the Drake equation to estimate the number of planets that may be home to civilizations with the ability to communicate beyond their world.While the Drake equation calculates the number of advanced alien civilizations that could exist in the Milky Way galaxy, Frank and Sullivan s equation expands the question to calculate the number of advanced civilizations that have existed in our galaxy throughout the whole history of the universe.After that, it s just a matter of counting up the tally of stars in the visible universe, and saying that — with all the suitable real estate that s out there, if we re the only place with intelligent life, then we ve really won the mother of all lotteries.Shostak cautions against being overly optimistic or pessimistic about the SETI Institute s searches for intelligent signals from possible neighbors in outer space.It s a bit like an ant coming out of its hive, seeing the enormous amount of real estate stretching in all directions and deciding that, if its home is the only ant hill, then its existence is a near-miracle.
It s extremely unlikely, but astronomers promised to get to the bottom of the cosmic mystery, and they need our help.More specifically, they need our money.In order to figure out why KIC 8452852 flickers and fades at irregular intervals — presenting unprecedented stellar behaviour that has left scientists scratching their heads and the rest of us praying for alien deliverance — we need to watch the star more closely, and we need to catch it doing something weird.KIC 8462852 was first flagged by citizen scientists as they trawled through the vast astronomical database collected by NASA s Kepler Space Telescope between 2009 and 2013.As I wrote earlier this year:When Kepler watched KIC 8462852 flicker several years back, it was only collecting white light—aggregating information across the visible spectrum.But if it happened again, astronomers would be prepared to make precise measurements in a broader range of wavelengths.
Chances are you ve never heard of Allan Sandage, but the late astronomer was a major figure in 20th century astronomy, particularly known for his work on how stars evolve.Late in life, he discovered two other scientists had beaten him to that breakthrough, but died before he could finish investigating.His posthumous paper correcting the historical record has just appeared in the Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific.Gamow and Adams had arrived at their insight based on a catalogue of more than 4,000 stellar classifications and distances, prepared over the course of 20 years at Mount Wilson Observatory.So Gamow s insight never led to any academic paper.If this very real discovery of sub giants had been recognised at the time, we could have increased the speed at which stellar evolutionary theory was developed, Beaton said in a statement.
It s extremely unlikely, but astronomers promised to get to the bottom of the cosmic mystery, and they need our help.More specifically, they need our money.In order to figure out why KIC 8452852 flickers and fades at irregular intervals — presenting unprecedented stellar behaviour that has left scientists scratching their heads and the rest of us praying for alien deliverance — we need to watch the star more closely, and we need to catch it doing something weird.KIC 8462852 was first flagged by citizen scientists as they trawled through the vast astronomical database collected by NASA s Kepler Space Telescope between 2009 and 2013.As I wrote earlier this year:When Kepler watched KIC 8462852 flicker several years back, it was only collecting white light—aggregating information across the visible spectrum.But if it happened again, astronomers would be prepared to make precise measurements in a broader range of wavelengths.
During May 2016 the Earth and Mars get closer to each other than at any time in the last ten years, explained the ESA, in a statement.This means that the Sun, Earth and Mars line up, with Earth sitting in between the Sun and the Red Planet, explained the ESA.This event allows astronomers using telescopes in space and on the ground to see more details on the Martian surface, it explained.The closest ever recorded oppositional approach was in 2003 when the red planet was 34.65 million away – its closest approach in 60,000 years.Hubble s latest Mars image, which was taken with the telescope s Wide Field Camera 3 WFC3 will help astronomers study large-scale changes on the red planet s surface, scientists say.The telescope recently helped astronomers find one of the largest-ever black holes in giant galaxy NGC 4889, some 300 million light years away.
A year has passed since the US Air Force sent up the mysterious X-37B. But the question of why remains unanswered. Read also: Elon Musk wants to send a craft to Mars in two years. On all occasions, it has worked as intended, then it can be used again. Jonathan McDowell is an astronomer at the Harvard-Smithsonian Centre for Astrophysics and says the long journeys are perfect to carry around sensitive loads to be tested in space. Security experts have argued that there is spy equipment being tested, as The Guardian reported, the military continues probably his work in silence.
Making first contact with intelligent alien life is probably on the top of any astronomer s wish list.What we often forget though is that not every alien civilisation is going to want to play nice, and so in our efforts to reach out, the messaging has to be flawless.In 1974, scientists sent a three minute message towards M13, a cluster of stars some 24,000 light years away.It s too late to conceal ourselves in the universe, so we should decide how we want to represent ourselves, At present, one of the major concerns around how we re doing that is focused around our love of entertainment.Instead it will focus on redefining how we package the information we send out.The new formula should give considerable hope to those who wonder if humanity is indeed the only civilisation in the universe because it not only suggests that there are advanced alien races out there but that the likliehood is that many have already been and gone long before we evolved.
This Memorial Day, Mars will be closer to Earth than it's been at any point in the past 11 years.Mars will be brighter than any other star or moon or planet around it on Monday night - and throughout the week.It will be a similar color, but this photo was captured at Bifrost Astronomical Observatory, Portal, AZ.According to Belgian astronomer Jean Meeus, Mars will come within 46.78 million miles 75.28 million kilometers of Earth at 5:35 p.m. EDT 2135 GMT .You can learn more about how to calculate when planets are in what position and when by having a peek at the book "Astronomical Algorithms" by Jean Meeus.A bit lighter - closer to the color of C-3PO's gold coverings than it is his new red arm.
It's Memorial Day, all Ars staff is off, and we're grateful for it running a site remains tough work .One of the more unfortunate memes that makes an appearance whenever climate science is discussed is the accusation that, by hyping their results, climate scientists are ensuring themselves steady paychecks, and may even be enriching themselves.A Google search for "global warming gravy train" pulls out over 50,000 results six of them from our forums .Since it doesn't have a lot of commercial appeal, most of the people working in the area, and the vast majority of those publishing the scientific literature, work in academic departments or at government agencies.It's also worth pointing out what they get that money for, as exemplified by a fairly typical program announcement for NSF grants.Climatologists are well equipped to identify potential problems, but very poorly equipped to solve them; it would be a bit like expecting an astronomer to know how to destroy a threatening asteroid.
A team led by Nobel Laureate Adam Riess took measurements of 300 visible Type Ia supernovae spread among an assortment of galaxies, as well as around 2,400 Cepheid stars, which pulsate on easily visible wavelengths."If we know the initial amounts of stuff in the universe, such as dark energy and dark matter, and we have the physics correct, then you can go from a measurement at the time shortly after the Big Bang and use that understanding to predict how fast the universe should be expanding today," said Riess.Take your measurements hereThe Hubble constant, named after its discoverer American astronomer Edwin Hubble, is the rate at which objects in the universe expand over time.The new value is 66.53 plus or minus 0.62 kilometers per second per megaparsec 3.26 million light-years .That figure is 5 per cent more than data from NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe WMAP , and 9 per cent more than the readings from the now-defunct European Space Agency's Planck satellite mission.The second option is that in the early period after the Big Bang, a new kind of subatomic particle burst out travelling at just under the speed of light.
When space agencies are planning to probes such as Mars or the moons of Jupiter, they tend to take a lot of hygienic measures to not ever get with it microorganisms from the soil. More than possible, according to astronomer Lennart Lindegren who have made such calculations: - It is almost inevitable that life spread between the planets in our solar system, he says. But there are even serious speculation that life might have been traveling to other solar systems on completely natural way. In the vacuum destroyed DNA molecules in the already within a few years, and dehydration, and cosmic radiation helps to decay. A few billion years ago the sun much closer to other stars. If the astronomers find evidence of life on other planets, the next question will be if there is independent or not.
But the latest offering comes from well respected British field astronomer Paul Cox who claims there is a second sun in our solar system that NASA are keeping secret.Cox claims that the world is blind to this information because the space agency is deliberately keeping it hidden.This theory came to light during an eight-hour live broadcast with Cox, where he showed a live feed of his telescope examining the planets.Pointing to a back dot, which was the planet Mercury, Cox says that this is the location of the second sun and rejected the idea that it was in fact the Swift Planet.During the Transit of Mercury video, Cox also alluded to the Planet X theory, which says that a broken planet will come from behind the sun and will eventually crash into earth and wipe out humans.Cox is employed by Slooh, a robotic live telescope broadcaster with the tag line let s explore the universe together since 2003.
The study shows a supermassive black hole getting ready to dive into a clumpy, chaotic downpour of giant clouds of very cold molecular gas, the European Southern Observatory ESO says in a news release.These new findings look at the way black holes devour fuel and attract surrounding matter.Black holes usually sustain themselves by steadily gulping in hot gas, which spirals in slowly from a surrounding disc of cosmic material, according to a Yale news release.But, this study is the first direct evidence that cold, dense clouds can coalesce out of hot intergalactic gas and plunge into the heart of a galaxy to feed supermassive black holes sitting at the center, the ESO says.Although it has been a major theoretical prediction in recent years, this is one of the first unambiguous pieces of observational evidence for a chaotic, cold rain feeding a supermassive black hole, Yale astronomer Grant Tremblay, lead author of the study, said in a news release.This 'rainstorm' requires just the right cosmic weather conditions to form: Hot gas hanging out in the galaxy cools, condenses, and forms clumps of cold gas.The group of three cold gas clouds, which this greedy black hole is preparing to gobble up, travels more than 600,000 miles per hour towards it.Each cloud measures tens of light years across and contains as much material as a million suns.Cheat dayThe study results suggest that black holes have two dinner modes, said co-author Michael McDonald in an MIT news release.Most of the time the black hole survives on a modest diet of hot gas, but every now and then it has a cheat day and binges on cold clumpy gas.Astronomers believe that there could be thousands more cold gas clouds nearby, which could provide the black hole with many more meals to come.Since we don't know a lot about how these supermassive black holes interact with the rest of the galaxy, said co-author Louise Edwards in the Yale news release, this is a real step forward.The astronomers used data from a telescope in Chile to track the movement of the gas in a neighborhood of 50 galaxies one billion light years from Earth called the Abell 2597 Cluster.
"Although it has been a major theoretical prediction in recent years, this is one of the first unambiguous pieces of observational evidence for a chaotic, cold rain feeding a supermassive black hole," said Grant Tremblay, an astronomer with Yale University and lead author on the paper.Peering through the ALMA telescope, Tremblay and his team studied an unusually bright galaxy cluster called Abell 2597.Each cloud contains as much material as a million Suns and is roughly the size of tens of light-years across, and were observed by the billion-light-year-long "shadows", they cast on earth."This very, very hot gas can quickly cool, condense, and precipitate in much the same way that warm, humid air in Earth's atmosphere can spawn rain clouds and precipitation," Tremblay said.Additional data from the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array shows that the gas clouds observed by ALMA are only about 300 light-years from the supermassive black hole, which in astronomical terms is near tipping point of being devoured.Despite having only detected three clouds, astronomers believe there may thousands of clouds floating around the black hole, waiting to be consumed, allowing it to grow to an even bigger size.
They also discuss some of the reasons you might want one, and the legality of folding or EDC knives in your area.It s absolutely massive, and it s tough to pin down a specific tip or trick from it—but they do make a few all-around great suggestions for anyone looking to buy one, if you want to skip the details which you shouldn t. via Knife Planet Ridiculous Exercise Trends, and Where They Came FromCrazy exercise trends are nothing new: A treadmill that s actually a bike that s powered by a treadmill that s on top of it instead of like, you know, being an actual bike, or the whole idea of prancercising, are good examples—but in this Mental Floss video, John Green runs down 22 ridiculous exercise trends that have emerged over the years, whether they re old history or current weirdness, that you absolutely shouldn t bother trying or partaking in yourself.It s an amazing listen, and you get to hear from someone who usually doesn t have the option to tell all about what goes on up at the front of the plane.Passion is dedication and focus driven by an emotion.Yet he can see stars in the night sky better than most people can.Email it to me, leave it as a comment below, or send it over any way you know how.
Astronomers have discovered the largest planet ever to orbit a double-star system.Lynette Cook/San Diego State UniversityPlanets that orbit two stars, often known as Tatooine planets first got their nickname in the Star Wars films when Luke Skywalker witnessed a twin sunset when he returned to his home world.Scientists at San Diego State University made their findings using the Kepler Space telescope and presented them to the American Astronomical Society this week.Lynette CookBut it has taken five years to confirm his suspicions.SEE ALSOSDSU astronomer William Welsh told Science Daily: Finding circumbinary planets is much harder than finding planets around single stars.The planet is 3,700 light years away and around the same age as the earth at 4.4 billion years old.
Artist's impression of the simultaneous stellar eclipse and planetary transit events on Kepler-1647 b.Lynette Cook A team of astronomers from NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center and San Diego State University has announced the exciting discovery of a planet with two suns within the Cygnus Constellation, using the Kepler Space Telescope.Named Kepler-1647 b, the planet is located 3,700 light years from Earth, and thought to be similar in age to our planet, around 4.4 billion years old.Related: On July 4, the Juno spacecraft will finally reach JupiterThe team wrote on the SDSU website that it takes the planet about 1,107 days, or a little over three years, to orbit its host stars.The transits are not regularly spaced in time and they can vary in duration and even depth, he said.Related: NASA just gave $100K to a company that wants to steer asteroids toward EarthAdditional support from amateur astronomers in the KELT Follow-Up Network aided the team in assessing the planet s mass.
Image Source: Lynette CookA team of astronomers from NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center and San Diego State University has announced the exciting discovery of a planet with two suns within the Cygnus Constellation, using the Kepler Space Telescope.Named Kepler-1647 b, the planet is located 3,700 light years from Earth, and thought to be similar in age to our planet, around 4.4 billion years old.Related: On July 4, the Juno spacecraft will finally reach JupiterThe team wrote on the SDSU website that it takes the planet about 1,107 days, or a little over three years, to orbit its host stars.The transits are not regularly spaced in time and they can vary in duration and even depth, he said.According to the team, Laurance Doyle, a coauthor on the paper and astronomer at the SETI Institute, noticed a transit back in 2011.Related: NASA just gave $100K to a company that wants to steer asteroids toward EarthAdditional support from amateur astronomers in the KELT Follow-Up Network aided the team in assessing the planet s mass.
A team of astronomers from NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center and San Diego State University has discovered a new exoplanet that orbits around two stars.At 4.4 billion years old, Kepler-1647b is about the same age of the Earth.With this strategy, astronomers look for dips in brightness from the host star as a planet transits in front of it in relation to the Earth.However, Kepler-1647b s orbital period is so long that it transits in front of its star less frequently than other confirmed exoplanets.It then took several years of analysis to confirm that the dip in brightness noticed in Kepler data was indeed caused by a circumbinary planet.The transits are not regularly spaced in time and they can vary in duration and even depth.
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