A reconstruction of ancient ocean temperatures 66 million years ago has provided evidence to support the idea one of the planet's largest mass extinctions was caused by a combination of volcanic eruptions and an asteroid impact.Researchers found two abrupt warming spikes in ocean temperatures that coincide with two previously documented extinction "pulses", seen near the end of the Cretaceous Period.The first extinction pulse was tied to massive volcanic eruptions in India, the second to the impact of an asteroid or comet on Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula.Both events were followed by a warming climate, evidenced by studying the chemical composition of fossil shells using a recently developed technique called the carbonate clumped isotope paleothermometer.This technique showed Antarctic ocean temperatures jumped around 14 degrees Fahrenheit during the first of the two warming events, likely the result of massive amounts of heat-trapping carbon dioxide gas released from India's Deccan Traps volcanic region.The second warming spike was smaller and occurred 150,000 years later, around the time of the Chicxulub impact in the Yucatan.
When the asteroid which wiped out the dinosaurs struck Earth, the surface of the planet rebounded so fast it formed a mountain higher than Everest in less than 10 minutes.That s one of the extraordinary findings of a new study which describes in unprecedented detail the impact the asteroid had on the planet.Its model for crater formation sheds light on how debris enshrouded the planet in darkness, leading to global cooling and the extinction of several species.Ik Kil Cenote on Mexico s Yucatan Peninsula.Researchers spent several weeks in early summer drilling through the so-called Chicxulub Crater off the coast of Mexico.According to their analysis, the devastating asteroid was only 15km-wide but dug a hole in the crust 100km wide and 30km deep.
Why did the dinosaurs go extinct?We may never be completely sure, although a giant asteroid and a bunch of enormous volcanic eruptions probably had a lot to do with it.If long incubation times were the norm among dinosaurs, the risk to babies and adults alike would have made it hard to compete in the post-apocalyptic wasteland following the Chicxulub asteroid impact 66 million years ago.I was stunned, Florida State University biologist and lead study author Gregory Erickson told Gizmodo, when asked how he felt after discovering that baby dinosaurs spent up to half a year inside their eggs.As a biologist, understanding incubation periods of an egg-laying animal has myriad implications for the group.Many of our assumptions about the lives of dinosaurs are based on their living descendants—birds—and embryonic development is no exception.
p Despite all that we know about the dinosaurs, there’s still a lot to learn, and today we’re discovering more about their disappearance from our fair planet.New research that delves into the asteroid that hit Earth, making the dinosaurs go extinct as a result, is giving us a window into just what happened to make the impact so severe.As it turns out, the size of the asteroid and the force of the impact may not have been to blame, but rather where the impact occurred could be responsible for the dinosaurs dying out.The Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event will be the focus of a new BBC show called The Day The Dinosaurs Died.In the show, a team of scientists lead by Professors Jo Morgan and Sean Gulick examine the Chicxulub crater in the Gulf of Mexico, where the 10 kilometer wide asteroid collided with Earth at the end of the Cretaceous era.Their research includes taking rock core samples from the crater, and what they found in those cores suggests that the location of impact had a bigger influence than anything else.
The massive asteroid that is thought to have wiped out the dinosaurs was one of the most significant events in Earth's history, and without it there's a really good chance humans might never have existed at all.With that in mind, it's hard to imagine how the space rock's impact could have been even more devastating than scientists have assumed, but new research suggests exactly that, and paints an even more dire picture of what life was like on Earth in the years that followed.Results of the study, which focused largely on the impact of the asteroid itself and the amount of various gasses that were ejected during the event, was published in Geophysical Research Letters.To get an idea of just how dramatic the climate shift would have been in the days, months, and years following the impact, scientists have relied on computer models of the collision.The data comes from knowledge of the impact site, which is now the Chicxulub crater located near the tip of the Yucatan Peninsula in present day Mexico.Previous computer models of the asteroid strike were not as refined as the new version, which takes into account the speed of the gasses that were released.
A city-size asteroid or comet is thought to have killed the dinosaurs 66 million years ago.The impact, called the Chicxulub event, released unfathomable quantities of dust and gas, rapidly cooling the entire planet.The angle of impact was recently recalculated, and computer models suggest that means the event led to a global cooling disaster far worse than previously estimated.Fighters may prefer to land straight-on punches, but when it comes to asteroid and comets, scientists are discovering that angled strikes can be far more dangerous.The dinosaurs had a rough go of it when a rogue space rock the size of a city struck Earth 66 million years ago, near what is now the city of Chicxulub on Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula.Until recently, researchers thought the asteroid or comet hit nearly straight down at a 90-degree angle, but recent drilling expeditions at Chicxulub crater, at the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico, suggest it happened at a more stilted 60-degree angle.
The giant space rock that wiped out the dinosaurs may have set off a chain of cataclysmic volcanic eruptions on land and undersea, claims a new study that is already dividing scientists.About 66 million years ago, a 9.5 km wide asteroid smacked into Earth, creating the Chicxulub crater in the Yucatan peninsula and sparking deadly chaos.Clouds of particles reflected the Sun’s energy away, darkening the skies and cooling Earth at least 25 degrees Celsius for several years, scientists said.It was enough to kill off three-quarters of the life on Earth, especially most of the creatures and plants on land.The study authors calculate that those ejected a tremendous amount of molten rock underwater — so much that on land it would cover the entire continental United States a couple hundred feet deep or so.The whole thing turns into a frothy mess,” said University of California, Berkeley geologist Paul Renne, who wasn’t part of the study but said it “illustrates how intertwined everything else is.”
Usually, new studies of the dino-killing mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous provide another view into just how bloody awful it was.But if you’re a glass-half-full kind of person, it’s interesting to think about how quickly life recovered—not on timescales relevant to an individual organism, necessarily, but in terms of species and ecosystems.A research cruise recently drilled a rock core into the Chicxulub Crater where an asteroid fell 66 million years ago.Coring the deeper rock helped show test models of the impossibly jello-like behavior of the bedrock during the impact, but there are also sedimentary rocks on top that were formed some time after the collision.Researchers who have looked elsewhere have noticed that life recovered more slowly in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic than in other ocean basins, taking about 300,000 years.One hypothesis to explain this is that concentrations of toxic metals were high near the impact crater.
Dinosaurs went extinct 65 million years ago because of a massive asteroid that hit the Earth in the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico, now known as the Chicxulub crater.While it's been generally accepted that the asteroid caused a massive disruption in the planet's climate, a new study says the asteroid also caused a worldwide tsunami that reached more than 5,000 feet in the air.The research, presented at the American Geophysical Union's annual meeting on Dec. 14, suggests that the tsunami impact started in the Gulf of Mexico and quickly spread from there."The impact tsunami spread quickly out of the Gulf of Mexico into the Atlantic and through the Central American seaway into the Pacific within the first 24 hours," the study's abstract reads."Wave reflection and refraction create a more complex tsunami propagation pattern by 48 hours post-impact."Led by researcher Molly Range from the University of Michigan, the researchers noted that the "impact not only had major effects on the global atmosphere and biosphere, it also created a tsunami of such magnitude that its effect is felt across much of the world ocean."
Solidified lava from ancient volcanoes, over a mile thick, covers about 200,000 miles of west-central India.Two teams have published papers analysing material in this region, called the Deccan Traps, and have provided the most accurate timing data yet on how quickly the volcanoes deposited the lava.Their results aren’t precise enough to overturn existing theories that attribute the dinosaurs’ demise to a large asteroid impact, but offer added complexity to the story.“To understand volcanoes’ role in mass extinction, we need to understand when the eruptions were occurring, how long they occurred for, and how much volume was erupted during what time,” Courtney Sprain, geoscientist and postdoctoral research associate at the University of Liverpool, told Gizmodo.You’re probably familiar with the most-accepted story of the dinosaur extinction: an enormous asteroid slammed into the Earth, creating the Chicxulub crater now located in the Gulf of Mexico.Such an impact would have released an enormous volume of material into the atmosphere, causing a long winter that killed off many plants and animals, including all of the dinosaurs except for those that evolved into present-day birds.
Solidified lava from ancient volcanoes, over a mile thick, covers about 200,000 miles of west-central India.Two teams have published papers analysing material in this region, called the Deccan Traps, and have provided the most accurate timing data yet on how quickly the volcanoes deposited the lava.Their results aren’t precise enough to overturn existing theories that attribute the dinosaurs’ demise to a large asteroid impact, but offer added complexity to the story.“To understand volcanoes’ role in mass extinction, we need to understand when the eruptions were occurring, how long they occurred for, and how much volume was erupted during what time,” Courtney Sprain, geoscientist and postdoctoral research associate at the University of Liverpool, told Gizmodo.You’re probably familiar with the most-accepted story of the dinosaur extinction: an enormous asteroid slammed into the Earth, creating the Chicxulub crater now located in the Gulf of Mexico.Such an impact would have released an enormous volume of material into the atmosphere, causing a long winter that killed off many plants and animals, including all of the dinosaurs except for those that evolved into present-day birds.
Solidified lava from ancient volcanoes, over a mile thick, covers about 200,000 miles of west-central India.Two teams have published papers analysing material in this region, called the Deccan Traps, and have provided the most accurate timing data yet on how quickly the volcanoes deposited the lava.Their results aren’t precise enough to overturn existing theories that attribute the dinosaurs’ demise to a large asteroid impact, but offer added complexity to the story.“To understand volcanoes’ role in mass extinction, we need to understand when the eruptions were occurring, how long they occurred for, and how much volume was erupted during what time,” Courtney Sprain, geoscientist and postdoctoral research associate at the University of Liverpool, told Gizmodo.You’re probably familiar with the most-accepted story of the dinosaur extinction: an enormous asteroid slammed into the Earth, creating the Chicxulub crater now located in the Gulf of Mexico.Such an impact would have released an enormous volume of material into the atmosphere, causing a long winter that killed off many plants and animals, including all of the dinosaurs except for those that evolved into present-day birds.
The new book “Cosmic Impact: Understanding the Threat to Earth from Asteroids and Comets,” by Andrew May (Icon Books), gives an overview of the potential dangers we may one day face from near-Earth objects (NEOs), noting that on a smaller scale, items falling to Earth from space is a daily occurrence.“In an average day, about 100 tons of meteor dust falls on the planet,” May writes.The sludge in your gutter almost certainly contains a few particles that came from outer space.”Dust particles from space, though, don’t place the planet and its inhabitants in mortal danger.The 124-mile Chicxulub crater, near Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula, was forged 66 million years ago when an object around 69 miles across slammed into the area from space.“The devastation would be so much larger than anything in human experience that it’s difficult to imagine,” May writes.
Sounds like normal life in the Shetland IslandsGeologists believe they have found rocks that filled the impact crater of the gigantic asteroid that pummeled Earth and killed off the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago.The catastrophic crash was about as powerful as setting off at least 10 billion Little Boy A-bombs, the type dropped on Hiroshima.The smash triggered wildfires, tsunamis, and sent up thick wafts of sulfur that choked out sunlight long enough to cool global temperatures down, leading to the extinction of the dominant species on the planet at the time.Now, a large team of scientists led by eggheads at the University of Texas, Austin, in the US reckon they have uncovered the rubble that rushed in to pack the gaping hole after the asteroid struck.Known as the Chicxulub crater, it's located in the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico.
Eight hundred million years ago, a 62-mile-wide asteroid broke apart and sent 110 trillion pounds of meteorites crashing into the moon and the Earth, according to a new study.
Science is an ongoing process, which means new discoveries often upend old theories. Contrary to what many people learned in school, Pluto is not a planet (well, sort of), dinosaurs didn't look like the pictures in your textbook, and atoms aren't the most basic components of matter. Here are some science "facts" you may have learned in school that aren't true. Visit Business Insider's homepage for more stories. If you were to file into a classroom and open your notebook for science class today, the subject matter might be a little different from when you were in school. Our body of scientific knowledge is constantly growing and changing. New discoveries or studies often lead to changes in old theories and sometimes even invalidate them altogether. That means some of the "facts" you learned in school aren't necessarily true anymore. For example, dinosaurs probably didn't look the way your textbook depicted them. The origins of Homo sapiens aren't as neat as the timeline you might have learned. And many of the nutrition and exercise guidance from your health classes has been debunked. Here are some science facts you may have learned in school that aren't true anymore.SEE ALSO: 9 things that aren't helping the environment as much as you think they are, from recycling to carbon offsets Myth: We don't know what caused the dinosaurs' mass extinction. Scientists used to scratch their heads about what caused the extinction that ended the age of dinosaurs — theories ranged from low dino sex drives to a world overrun by caterpillars. But in 1978, geophysicists stumbled upon Chicxulub, a crater in the Yucatan Peninsula made by the 6-mile-wide asteroid that likely triggered the dinosaurs' demise. Since that discovery, researchers have uncovered more details about the asteroid's impact. The collision caused a mile-high tsunami, sparked wildfires, and released billions of tons of sulfur into the atmosphere, blotting out the sun for years. This year, new climate modeling laid a popular competing theory about the dinosaurs' extinction to rest. Many scientists had previously suggested that eruptions of a giant range of volcanoes in modern-day India — called the Deccan traps — contributed to the dinosaurs' downfall. The sulfur gases they released were thought to have rapidly cooled the climate, much like the asteroid's global dust cloud. But recent climate-modeling research found that those eruptions weren't a big factor. A January study found that the major temperature changes at the time only aligned with the asteroid impact. "It was the asteroid 'wot done it," Paul Wilson, a paleoclimatologist who co-authored that paper, told the BBC. Another study found that the Deccan volcano eruptions may have actually helped re-warm the climate after the asteroid hit. Myth: Dinosaurs were scaly, earthy-colored lizards. Dinosaurs likely had feathers. Feathers are rarely preserved in the fossil record, but scientists have uncovered feathered dino fossils in China and Siberia, suggesting plumage was common across the great lizards. "Probably that means the common ancestor of all dinosaurs had feathers," Pascal Godefroit, a paleontologist who wrote a 2014 study on a key Siberian fossil, told National Geographic. Underneath the feathers, dinos could have had brightly colored scales, like many modern-day lizards. Feathers have never been found on a T. rex specimen, but fossils of other tyrannosaur species do have preserved feathers. So paleontologists can assume the T. rex had them too. Though adult T. rexes were mostly covered in scales, scientists think they had patches of feathers on attention-getting areas like the head and tail. Myth: The T. rex was a running, roaring lizard like the one you saw in "Jurassic Park." Though a terrifying predator, the "king of the dinosaurs" probably did not roar or sprint. The dinosaur's long stride could carry it as fast as 25 mph, but it never reached a suspended gait, since it always had at least one leg on the ground. A 2016 study suggested that instead of roaring, the T. rex probably cooed, hooted, and made deep-throated booming sounds like the modern-day emu. Myth: Dinosaurs laid eggs with hard shells. Early dinosaurs may have laid leathery, soft-shelled eggs, like turtles do today. Paleontologists recently found fossils of such eggs from two dinosaur species in the Gobi Desert. Myth: Neanderthals were dumb brutes who didn't mingle with Homo sapiens. Evidence of Neanderthal cave art in Europe significantly predates similar paintings by Homo sapiens. Our extinct cousins also crafted tools and ornaments out of stone and bone, made tar glue from birch bark that allowed them to attach wooden handles to stone tools, and cooked with fire (though they may have relied on lightning strikes to start the flames). Perhaps this intelligence is what inspired early humans to breed with Neanderthals and Denisovans, another early hominin species. Myth: Homo sapiens first emerged 200,000 years ago in east Africa. Groups of Homo sapiens may have evolved at the same time all over Africa instead of in one primary location, a 2018 paper suggested. A skull discovered in 2017 also showed that was happening about 300,000 years ago, further back in history than previously thought. Not all of these groups would have looked identical, but they may have been close enough to all be considered Homo sapiens. The groups would have interacted with one another and migrated across the continent. So instead of emerging in one area in eastern or southern Africa and then spreading from there, distantly related groups of humans across the continent could have become more similar over time. Read more: A handful of recent discoveries has transformed our entire understanding of human history Myth: Humans first reached North America 13,000 years ago by crossing the Bering land bridge. Archaeologists have discovered evidence of much earlier human presence. Most recently, they uncovered nearly 2,000 stone tools, ash, and other human artifacts in a high-altitude cave in Mexico, some of which date back 30,000 years. Scientists have also found fossilized human poop that's about 14,000 years old in an Oregon cave. Artifacts from a settlement in southern Chile were dated to between 14,500 and 19,000 years old. And a horse jaw bone that bore human markings suggested humans occupied the Bluefish Caves of Yukon, Canada 24,000 years ago. But none of these discoveries pushed the timeline as far back as the Mexican cave artifacts. The evidence from the cave suggests humans lived in North America during the last Ice Age — long before the Bering land bridge existed. Lorena Becerra-Valdivia, an archaeological scientist at the Universities of Oxford and New South Wales, told Business Insider that "the new findings suggest that humans likely took a coastal route." That means they were probably seafarers who arrived by boat, possibly from modern-day Russia or Japan. Then they expanded south by sailing down the Pacific Coast. Myth: Camels store water in their humps. Camels humps store fat, which the animals burn for fuel when traveling long distances with limited resources. A camel can use that fat to replace about three weeks' worth of food, according to Animal Planet. It's the camel's red blood cells that enable it to go a week without drinking water. Unlike other creatures, camels have oval-shaped blood cells that are more flexible and enable them to store large quantities of water. Myth: Bats are blind. Many bats rely on echolocation to navigate, but that doesn't mean they can't see. Myth: The food pyramid is the gold standard of nutrition. The US Department of Agriculture released the Food Guide Pyramid in 1992, but much of the nutritional advice it offered has since been debunked. The pyramid made no distinction between refined carbs like white bread and whole grains like brown rice. There is also no distinction between the healthiest proteins (like beans, nuts, and fish) and red meat, which can increase one's risk of cancer and heart disease. The chart also banished healthy fats to the "use sparingly" tip of the pyramid, lumping them in with added sugars and trans fats from processed oils and packaged foods. In the mid-1990s, Harvard researchers estimated that trans fats led to roughly 50,000 preventable deaths each year in the US. However, research has found that the healthy unsaturated fats found in foods like nuts, seeds, and avocados are crucial to a balanced diet. Myth: Milk is good for your bones. Much of the hype about milk comes from dairy industry marketing campaigns, though the USDA helped too. A page on the department's website tells us that adults should drink three cups of milk per day, mostly for calcium and vitamin D, and that kids should drink two to three cups to build strong bones. However, multiple studies have found no association between drinking more milk (or taking calcium and vitamin D supplements) and experiencing fewer bone fractures. Some studies have even found an association between drinking milk and higher overall mortality; that doesn't mean milk consumption was the cause, but it's not an endorsement. Another page on the USDA's website has changed the three-cup recommendation to encompass the entire dairy category, which includes yogurt and cheese. Myth: Crunches and sit-ups are great for your core. A lot of us practiced this move in gym class, but many experts have told Business Insider that crunches are not efficient core-builders and that they can damage your back and neck if you do them wrong. The nonprofit American Council on Exercise says that when it comes to crunches, a lot of people "perform this movement too rapidly" and cheat by using their hip flexors. "This technique tilts the pelvis anteriorly, increasing the stress on the low back, and should be avoided," the council says on its website. Read more: Traditional sit-ups and crunches are terrible for you, according to personal trainers — here's what they suggest instead Myth: Drinking alcohol kills your brain cells. Alcohol can damage the connections between your brain cells, but it doesn't actually kill them. Still, many studies have found that excessive drinking over long periods can damage the brain, and children with fetal alcohol syndrome often have fewer brain cells. Studies have also found that heavy (and even moderate) drinkers can have increased brain shrinkage. Myth: Diamonds come from coal. Diamonds and coal are both made from carbon, but most of Earth's diamonds are much older than its coal. Diamonds also form much deeper in the Earth's high-pressure mantle, via a process that has nothing to do with coal. Coal, meanwhile, is found in Earth's crust. Myth: There's a dark side of the moon. There is a side of the moon that we never see from Earth, but it's not dark all the time. The moon is tidally locked with Earth, which means that we are always looking at the same side of it. As Earth spins, and our cold rock satellite rotates around it, sunlight falls across all sides of the moon. Myth: Pluto is the ninth planet. (Well, this one's complicated.) The International Astronomical Union originally classified Pluto as the ninth planet that orbits the sun. But in 2005, Eris, another really big space rock that orbits the sun, was discovered. It's 27% more massive than Pluto, though a 2015 finding later revealed Pluto to be slightly larger. That forced the IAU to rethink what a planet actually is. The IAU decided on criteria that neither Pluto nor Eris met, so neither could be considered one of the major planets that orbits the sun. Instead, they're both dwarf planets. So yes, Pluto is a planet — it's just a dwarf planet. Myth: Mars is a desert of red dust with no water. Three years' worth of radar data suggests that a lake of liquid water might lurk beneath Mars' polar ice caps, a study published last year said. Previous findings also indicated that liquid water might flow seasonally across Mars' surface, though the discovery has been thrown into question. Myth: Black holes are invisible. In school, you may have learned that black holes swallow everything around them, including light. That's sort of true. A black hole is an extremely compact, massive object with a powerful gravitational pull — so powerful that not even light can escape. But that reach only extends a few billion miles. The dark center that swallows up light is called the event horizon, and it's usually surrounded by a glowing circle of dust, rock, and other space debris that is slowly falling towards it. This region of the black hole, called the accretion disk, produces plenty of visible light. That's how scientists got the first picture of a black hole last year. Sometimes collisions or reactions within the accretion disk even produce explosions of bright light. Myth: Nothing moves faster than light. Light moves at 299,792,458 meters per second in a vacuum, but it slows down when it travels through various substances. For example, light moves at about 75% of that speed through water and about 41% of that speed through diamond. Electrons, neutrons, or neutrinos can outpace photons of light in such media — though they have to bleed off energy as radiation when they do. The expanding fabric of space also once exceeded light-speed during the Big Bang, and physicists think wormholes and quantum entanglement might defy the rule as well. Read more: The speed of light is torturously slow, and these 3 simple animations by a scientist at NASA prove it Myth: The phases of matter are liquid, solid, and gas (and maybe plasma). This may not be elementary-school-science material, but there are many more states of matter, including quark-gluon plasma, superfluids, Bose-Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, photonic matter, and possibly even supersolids — just to name a few. Liquid, solid, and gas are just the states you can observe in everyday life. Plasma, which some people learned about as the state of matter for lightning, is the most abundant form of matter in the universe. Myth: Atoms, the building blocks of matter, can be broken down only into electrons, protons, and neutrons. Matter gets much smaller and more complex than that. Quantum physics predicts 18 types of elementary particles, 16 of which have been detected by experiments. Protons and neutrons are made up of quarks, which are held together by gluons. Dave Mosher and Aylin Woodward contributed reporting to this post. This article has been updated to include new information. It was originally published on September 19, 2019. An earlier version of this story incorrectly stated that Eris is larger than Pluto.
One of the galaxy‘s oldest whodunits may have finally been solved thanks to some simulation-powered super sleuthing from Harvard University. In this case, we may now know the origin of the Chicxulub crater. Experts have long believed the majority of dinosaur species went extinct after a massive asteroid, responsible for the Chicxulub crater near Mexico, impacted the Earth some 66 million years ago. But a new theory indicates the particular asteroid scientists believe ended the reign of Rex wasn’t a solitary local stone, but a scrap from a much larger body originating in the outskirts of the the solar system.… This story continues at The Next Web
Scientists know that about 66 million years ago, a major event happened on earth that resulted in the extinction of the dinosaurs. The Chicxulub impactor, as the impact is known, left behind a massive crater off the coast of Mexico 93 miles wide and 12 miles deep. While scientists know this is the impact that made many species on Earth … Continue reading
Researchers from the University of Texas at Austin say they believe they have definitively closed the case of what killed off the dinosaurs. The team definitively linked the extinction of the dinosaurs to an asteroid that impacted the earth 66 million years ago. The link came when the team found a key piece of evidence in the form of asteroid … Continue reading
Plant fossils from Colombia show a turnover from conifers to today's forests.
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