As part of the Research for Civil Security 2012-2017 framework program of the German Federal Government, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) is providing EUR 2.7 million to the junior research group on "Jihadism on the Internet" at the Department of Anthropology and African Studies at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU).The project was initiated by Professor Matthias Krings of the Department of Anthropology and African Studies at Mainz University.It brings together six young academics and researchers from the fields of Anthropology, Islamic Studies, and Film and Media Studies.Group leader Dr. Christoph Günter is a junior researcher with extensive knowledge of the visual culture of jihadist movements.Together with two other researchers and three doctoral candidates, the group is working on the analysis of jihadist images and videos.They are also examining how this material proliferates online and how various audience groups react.
Only a small part of the universe consists of visible matter.By far the largest part is invisible and consists of dark matter and dark energy.Very little is known about dark energy, but there are many theories and experiments on the existence of dark matter designed to find these as yet unknown particles.Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe.This new model proposes an alternative to the WIMP paradigm that is the subject of various experiments in current research.Dark matter is present throughout the universe, forming galaxies and the largest known structures in the cosmos.
No difference in protons and antiprotons have yet been found which would help to potentially explain the existence of matter in our universe.However, physicists in the BASE collaboration at the CERN research center have been able to measure the magnetic force of antiprotons with almost unbelievable precision.Around the world, scientists are using a variety of methods to find some difference, regardless of how small.The multinational BASE collaboration at the European research center CERN brings together scientists from the RIKEN research center in Japan, the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU), the University of Tokyo, GSI Darmstadt, Leibniz Universität Hannover, and the German National Metrology Institute (PTB) in Braunschweig.The BASE collaboration published high-precision measurements of the antiproton g-factor back in January 2017 but the current ones are far more precise.This is the equivalent of measuring the circumference of the earth to a precision of four centimeters.
A future quantum computer, using "quantum bits" or qubits, might be able to solve problems which are not tractable for classical computers.Scientists are currently struggling to build devices with more than a few qubits, with the challenge arising that the qubits mutually hamper each other's proper operation.Researchers led by Professor Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler und Dr. Ulrich Poschinger at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now demonstrated the operation of a four-qubit register comprised of atomic ions trapped in microchip trap.The ion qubits can be freely positioned within the trap, such that laser-driven quantum operations at high accuracy remain possible.The team has realized the generation of an entangled state of the four qubits, where each of the qubits loses its individual identity, but the register as a whole does have a well-defined state.This has been accomplished by sequential operations on pairs of qubits, interleaved with ion movement operations.
The University Medical Center of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) will be receiving a total of EUR 1.8 million in the new round of the EU's Horizon 2020 framework program for research and innovation.The DynaMORE project being coordinated by Professor Raffael Kalisch of the German Center for Resilience Research (Deutsches Resilienz Zentrum, DRZ) at the Mainz University Medical Center attracted funding through the Personalised Medicine line.The nTRACK researchers look at stem cell therapeutics equipped with nanocarriers and how it can be used in the regeneration of muscle tissue.The DynaMORE project, coordinated by Professor Raffael Kalisch of the German Center for Resilience Research at the Mainz University Medical Center, aims at developing personalized computer models of resilience, i.e., the psychological capacity to overcome challenges, for individuals who are in difficult stages of their lives or who have suffered trauma.Based on this, the idea is then to use a specially developed smartphone app to provide personalized recommendations and training sessions to help improve resilience.Of this, EUR 1 million will go to the Mainz University Medical Center.
In the emerging field of magnon spintronics, researchers investigate the possibility to transport and process information by means of so-called magnon spin currents.In contrast to electrical currents, on which todays information technology is based, magnon spin currents do not conduct electrical charges but magnetic momenta.These are mediated by magnetic waves, or so-called magnons, which analogous to sound waves propagate through magnetic materials.One fundamental building block of magnon spintronics is magnon logic, which, for instance, allows to perform logic operations and thus information processing by the superposition of spin currents.An international team of physicists from Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) and the University of Konstanz in Germany and Tohoku University in Sendai, Japan, recently succeeded in adding a further element to the construction set of magnon logic.In a so-called spin valve structure, which amongst others comprises several ferromagnets, it was possible to demonstrate that the detection efficiency of magnon currents depends on the magnetic configuration of the device.
Professor Helle Ulrich from the Institute of Molecular Biology (IMB) and Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) has been awarded a Proof of Concept Grant from the European Research Council (ERC).This grant will go towards exploring the development of a new experimental tool called "Ubiquiton," which will enable researchers to specify the type of ubiquitin modification on any protein inside a living cell.Ubiquitin can be thought of as the instructions of a theater director who tells the players, i.e., the proteins, what to do and when to leave the stage.These instructions can be quite complex since ubiquitin can be added to proteins either singly, multiply, or in the form of variable ubiquitin chains.Until now, the ability to study the effect of different ubiquitin chains has been severely limited since there are no good tools that allow for their easy manipulation.This is crucial as different ubiquitin assemblies can radically change the behavior of a protein, and misguided or deregulated ubiquitylation is known to underlie diseases, such as cancer, neurodegeneration, and inflammation.
Four young researchers from abroad will be initiating new research projects at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU).Three of them are postdoctoral researchers working in the field of physics, the fourth combines palaeogenomics with his study of prehistoric archaeology.They will be receiving support in the form of Individual Fellowships (IF) provided through the European Union's Marie Sklodowska-Curie actions (MSCA) program, which is a particular distinction for the four researchers.These outstanding young academics will be entitled to EU sponsorship worth a total of EUR 650,000 for a period of 24 months.In spintronics, a spin current rather than electricity is used to transmit information.He came to Germany in November 2016 after being awarded a scholarship by the Materials Science in Mainz (MAINZ) Graduate School of Excellence at JGU and has been a member of Professor Mathias Kläui's research team since May 2017.
Data hurtle down fiber-optic cables at frequencies of several terahertz.As soon as the data arrive on a PC or television, this speed must be throttled to match the data processing speed of the device components, which currently is in the range of a few hundred gigahertz only.Researchers at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) have now developed a technology that can process the data up to hundred times faster and thus close the gap between the transport and processing speeds.Yes, this could be a goal for the German national team ... Oh no!Selected World Cup games were shown in razor-sharp clarity in ultra high definition (UHD) on domestic TV sets.Unfortunately, it is often the case that either the bandwidth of the transmission media cannot keep up with the data flow or the data simply cannot be processed fast enough.
A team of archaeologists analyzed injuries to the skeletons of two deer and then attacked deer pelvises with sensor-equipped wooden spears to replicate the wounds.The result is a rare insight into how Neanderthal hunters made a living: thrusting short wooden spears at their prey, probably in well-coordinated group ambushes.Animal bones at several Neanderthal sites bear the telltale marks of butchery, but there’s little evidence of how, exactly, Neanderthals brought down their prey.The only obvious evidence so far—and even here not all archaeologists agree—are wooden spears or lances known from three sites only.Considering that hominins probably started hunting as early as 1.8 million years ago, evidence is meager,” Johannes Gutenberg–University Mainz archaeologist Sabine Gaudzinski-Windheuser told Ars Technica.Archaeologists found the pointed tip of a 400,000-year-old wooden staff at a site in Clacton, England, once inhabited by Neanderthals’ earlier relatives, Homo heidelbergensis, and several sharpened wooden sticks turned up at a 300,000-year-old site in Schöningen, Germany.
The transition from light bulbs to LEDs has drastically cut the amount of electricity we use for lighting.Most of the electricity consumed by incandescent bulbs was, after all, dissipated as heat.We may now be on the verge of a comparable breakthrough in electronic computer components.If spin current were employed instead, computers and similar devices could be operated in a much more energy-efficient manner.Dr. Olena Gomonay from Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany and her team together with Professor Eiji Saitoh from the Advanced Institute for Materials Research (AIMR) at Tohoku University in Japan and his work group have now discovered an effect that could make such a transition to spin current a reality.Instead of using an electric current composed of charged particles, a computer using a stream of particles with a spin other than zero could manipulate the material of its components in the same way to perform calculations.
In the future, today's electronic storage technology may be superseded by devices based on tiny magnetic structures.These individual magnetic regions correspond to bits and need to be as small as possible and capable of rapid switching.In order to better understand the underlying physics and to optimize the components, various techniques can be used to visualize the magnetization behavior.Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now refined an electron microscope-based technique that makes it possible not only to capture static images of these components but also to film the high-speed switching processes.The research was carried out in cooperation with Surface Concept GmbH and the results have been published in the journal Review of Scientific Instruments.Scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis is a lab-based technique for imaging magnetic structures.
Scientists have succeeded in observing the first long-distance transfer of information in a magnetic group of materials known as antiferromagnets.These materials make it possible to achieve computing speeds much faster than existing devices.Conventional devices using current technologies have the unwelcome side effect of getting hot and being limited in speed.The emerging field of magnon spintronics aims to use insulating magnets capable of carrying magnetic waves, known as magnons, to help solve these problems.Physicists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany, in cooperation with theorists from Utrecht University in the Netherlands and the Center for Quantum Spintronics (QuSpin) at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in Norway, demonstrated that antiferromagnetic iron oxide, which is the main component of rust, is a cheap and promising material to transport information with low excess heating at increased speeds.By reducing the amount of heat produced, components can continue to become smaller alongside an increased information density.
The EU will be investing a total of EUR 1 billion over the next ten years.Flagship programs are large, interdisciplinary European research initiatives.On 29 October 2018 at the Vienna Hofburg, the European Commission launched the flagship initiative and its approved component projects, each of which was previously reviewed in a highly competitive selection process.Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) is involved in two of these projects and will receive funding of about EUR 1.4 million.Quantum technology is a comparatively young field.It is here that the bizarre phenomena associated with quantum mechanics - originally described more than 100 years ago by the German researcher Max Planck - are harnessed for technological applications.
A team of scientists from Germany has succeeded in creating a Bose-Einstein condensate for the first time in space on board a research rocket.On January 23, 2017 at 3:30 a.m. Central European Time, the MAIUS-1 mission was launched into space from the Esrange Space Center in Sweden.The Bose-Einstein condensate, an ultracold gas, can be used as a starting point for performing important measurements in zero gravity.During the approximately 15-minute rocket flight, the scientists managed to conduct approximately 100 experiments with regard to the generation and characterization of the Bose-Einstein condensate and its suitability as a basis for high-precision interferometry.Ultracold quantum gases are employed as a source for a variety of quantum technological experiments.Scientists can use them to measure the Earth's gravitational field, detect gravitational waves, and test Einstein's equivalence principle with high precision.
Astronomers use laser beams to create artificial stars, or laser guide stars (LGS), in this layer for improving the quality of astronomical observations.In 2011, researchers proposed that artificial guide stars could also be used to measure the Earth's magnetic field in the mesosphere.An international group of scientists has recently managed to do this with a high degree of precision.The technique may also help to identify magnetic structures in the solid Earth's lithosphere, to monitor space weather, and to measure electrical currents in the part of the atmosphere called ionosphere.Astronomers have been using lasers to generate artificial stars for the past 20 years.Such artificial stars are barely visible to the naked eye but can be observed with telescopes," explained Felipe Pedreros Bustos of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU).
Researchers led by the University Medical Center of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) identified effects of nanoparticles on intestinal microorganisms.One of the researchers' observations was that nanoparticles' binding inhibits the infection with Helicobacter pylori, a pathogen implicated in gastric cancer.In medicine, the focus is on improving diagnostics and therapeutics, while industry addresses mainly product optimization.Hence, synthetic nanoparticles are already used as additives to improve the characteristics of food.'Microbiome' describes all colonizing microorganisms present in a human being, in particular, all the bacteria in the gut.In other words, your microbiome includes your intestinal flora as well as the microorganisms that colonize your skin, mouth, and nasal cavity.
A new innovative cross-university project in the field of computer science designed to further develop deep learning, the current engine of artificial intelligence, has won out in the third round of the Rhine-Main Universities (RMU) Initiative Funding for Research.The RMU Network for Deep Continuous Discrete Machine Learning (DeCoDeML) will combine the machine learning expertise of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU), TU Darmstadt, and Goethe University Frankfurt, enabling them to tackle important unresolved issues in deep learning.Artificial intelligence (AI) is already an integral part of daily life where it plays a role in image recognition, voice control, and social bots through to self-driving cars and humanoid robots.In the RMU Network for Deep Continuous-Discrete Machine Learning, or DeCoDeML for short, the participating researchers at the Rhine-Main Universities of Mainz, Darmstadt, and Frankfurt will examine the question of how the results of machine learning can be made more comprehensible or at least perceived in such a way that they can be related to human understanding.Core research areas of Goethe University Frankfurt involve the cognitive aspects of learning, such as the question of how learning is guided by expectations, and in taking a systems-oriented view of technical systems with machine learning components.Moreover, the two coordinators of the project, Professor Stefan Kramer of the Institute of Computer Science at JGU and Professor Kristian Kersting of the Computer Science Department at TU Darmstadt, are also currently active members of the Platform Learning Systems advisory committee of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), which deals with policy formation and potential funding for machine learning in Germany.
HOUSTON - (March 22, 2019) - The light scattered by plasmonic nanoparticles is useful, but some of it gets lost at the surface and scientists are now starting to figure out why.Plasmons are ripples of electrons that resonate across the surface of a metal nanoparticle when triggered by light.The light they receive at one wavelength, or color, is radiated at the same wavelength, and that can inform researchers about the particle and its environment.It had been thought signal loss via plasmon damping was due to chemicals adsorbed to the nanoparticle surface, perhaps through charge transfer from the metal to the chemical substances.Emily Carter, a theoretical-computational scientist and dean of the School of Engineering and Applied Science at Princeton, performed detailed quantum mechanical calculations to test mechanisms that could explain the experiments.The plasmons that flow across a surface depend so heavily on the particle's size and shape that little attention had been paid to the effect of chemicals adsorbed to the surface, Förster said.
Researchers at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) have succeeded in developing a key constituent of a novel unconventional computing concept.This constituent employs the same magnetic structures that are being researched in connection with storing electronic data on shift registers known as racetracks.This is an alternative concept for electronic data processing where information is transferred in the form of probabilities rather than in the conventional binary form of 1 and 0.The results of this research have been published in the journal Nature Nanotechnology.Skyrmions can basically be imagined as small magnetic vortices, similar to hair whorls.The advantage is that the increased stability reduces the probability of unintentional data loss and ensures the overall quantity of bits is maintained.