In an appearance on CNBC's Squawk Box on Thursday, Environmental Protection Agency director Scott Pruitt said that he does not believe that carbon dioxide is a "primary contributor" to global warming, in part because he says that "measuring with precision human activity on the climate is something very challenging to do."We're taught in grade school that the Earth's atmosphere acts as a "blanket" trapping heat from the Sun.The key factor in being able to trap heat is the ability to absorb photons in the infrared spectrum, which are the frequencies that human-tolerable temperatures are transmitted.Neither of those two gasses is capable of absorbing or transmitting infrared photons.That more complex vibration makes carbon dioxide able to have stronger interactions with infrared radiation.As a result, it absorbs and re-emits heat in a way other gasses in the atmosphere don't.
How are most drugs absorbed via the gut?originally appeared on Quora: the place to gain and share knowledge, empowering people to learn from others and better understand the world.the place to gain and share knowledge, empowering people to learn from others and better understand the world.Most are absorbed by simple diffusion with the molecule passing through the cells of the intestinal epithelium one by one (transcellular transport below) .Some small water soluble molecules may get through the intestinal epithelium by passing between the spaces between cells (paracellular transport), but the drug still needs to pass through the membrane in the end to reach an intracellular target.Only a minority of drugs cross through by active transport through proteins , which is mainly confined to analogs of peptides, amino acid, lipids, sugars, and other vital metabolites like pruvate which are needed by the cell in bulk .
With the help of nanotechnology and a mobile phone camera, hope professor able to cut the time significantly.Malaria, blood poisoning and sleeping sickness are examples of common infectious diseases, which often must be grown and analyzed in large and expensive microscope to be identified.this means that The time from symptoms to diagnosis may take several days, because odlingstiden is long and that the test must be sent. " It is important, not least in the sepsis where life often hangs on a fragile thread.the Idea to combine it with the mobile microscopy occurred when he was a few years ago encountered, together with professor Aydogan Ozcan at UCLA, California, which, according to Jonas Tegenfeldt is a world leader in the field of mobile phones as a tool for simple microscopy.Nanotechnology is to analyze a single dna molecule, rather than a cultivated specimen.
Quantum computing is still many years away from becoming useful to the world.IBM Q is intended to help developers solve problems that are not readily addressable with current traditional computers -- problems that are exponential in nature.Traditional computers are confined to representing information in either a "1" or "0" on a transistor.Quantum systems could be useful, for example, in understanding molecule structures, where the quantum states of a simple molecule can grow exponentially.Better understanding molecules could lead to major advancements in drug discovery.Supply chain optimization is another problem where finding the most efficient path can grow enormously complex.
If it one of the rare drugs that makes it through further testing and clinical trials—which even in the best of circumstances would takes years—it could be highly useful.The U.S. is now gripped by an epidemic of opioid addiction and overdoses.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 91 people a day die of an opioid overdose.Coroners have had trouble .Using computer simulations, the researcher figured out how modify fentanyl so that it only worked in more acidic conditions.The resulting molecule is ( )-N-(3-fluoro-1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-phenyl propionamide, or NFEPP for short.
Industry in the 21st century will be defined by our abilities to manipulate, design and invent new tech based on living systems.Synthetic cells, commoditised genetic circuitry and now DNA itself are being added to the tools drawn from evolution, but remixed and repurposed by design.We celebrated the 60th anniversary in April of Crick and Watson's paper on the iconic structure of that universal molecule of life, but let's not forget that in essence the double helix is a data storage format.Since 1953, we have decoded life's source code, cut and pasted it across species and read entire genomes of dozens of creatures, including ourselves.We're now eschewing the natural language of DNA altogether and upgrading it into an immense data format.Hard drives require power; magnetic tape degrades after a decade.
For several decades now, researchers have been working on building computers out of DNA that can perform simple tasks.Some approaches are analogue, as opposed to digital.The idea of using DNA was first proposed in 1994 to address key limitations of silicon.The tiny size and supreme stability of the molecule give it a number of advantages over traditional computers, making it ideal for problem-solving.But now, researchers at the University of Manchester have seized on another property of DNA - its ability to replicate itself.“Imagine a computer is searching a maze and comes to a choice point, one path leading left, the other right,” said Ross King, from Manchester’s School of Computer Science.
In 2016, Sir J. Fraser Stoddart, who won the 2016 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, was one of the six American winners of the Nobel Prize in economics and scientific fields who were immigrants.Stoddart is one of the few chemists of the past quarter of a century to have created a new field of organic chemistry – namely, one in which the mechanical bond is a pre-eminent feature of molecular compounds, notes his biography.He has pioneered the development of the use of molecular recognition and self-assembly processes in template-directed protocols for the syntheses of two-state mechanically interlocked compounds bistable catenanes and rotaxanes that have been employed as molecular switches and as motor-molecules in the fabrication of nanoelectronic devices and NanoElectroMechanical Systems NEMS , according to Northwestern University.The implications of the research are considerable: Stoddart s introduction of the mechanical bond, which has led to the fabrication of artificial molecular switches and motors, has been responsible for putting chemists at the forefront of the burgeoning field of molecular nanotechnology, with implications ranging all the way from information technology to health care, notes the university.Stoddart was born in Edinburgh, in the United Kingdom, in 1942.He earned a BSc and PhD from Edinburgh, became a research fellow at Sheffield University and later a visiting fellow at UCLA.
Whenever you say a colour name, you re referring to specific properties of light waves.With all of the different scented chemicals out there and their complex interactions, it s been impossible to create a simple scale to describe the odours or noses detect.Scientists understand that the way things smell, be they like garlic or piss, comes from the way receptors in our body interact with the structures of different odiferous molecules.Still, given a certain molecule or combination, it s difficult to accurately determine what smell we re going to get.Today, what they do to create new smells is use specialists trained for years and years, or hundreds of people testing thousands of odours, study author Pablo Meyer from IBM s Thomas J. Watson Research Centre told Gizmodo.This produced a shitload of data, which 22 teams crunched with machine learning algorithms to create optimal models of scent.
Whenever you say a color name, you’re referring to specific properties of light waves.With all of the different scented chemicals out there and their complex interactions, it’s been impossible to create a simple scale to describe the odors or noses detect.Scientists understand that the way things smell, be they like garlic or piss, comes from the way receptors in our body interact with the structures of different odiferous molecules.Still, given a certain molecule or combination, it’s difficult to accurately determine what smell we’re going to get.“Today, what they do to create new smells is use specialists trained for years and years,” or hundreds of people testing thousands of odors, study author Pablo Meyer from IBM’s Thomas J. Watson Research Center told Gizmodo.This produced a shitload of data, which 22 teams crunched with machine learning algorithms to create optimal models of scent.
Developing a drug from a promising molecule to a potential life-saver can take more than a decade and cost billions of dollars.Speeding this process up - without compromising on safety or efficacy - would seem to be in everyone's interests."Cloud platforms are globally accessible and easily available," says Kevin Julian, managing director at Accenture Life Sciences, Accelerated R Services division."A big phase three trial will cost anything from $30m-$60m (£24m-£48m) for a pharma company," says Steve Rosenberg, general manager of Oracle Health Sciences Global Business Unit."Data collection used to be very inefficient, with data being written on paper forms, faxed and then entered into computers manually," explains Tarek Sherif, co-founder and chief executive of Medidata, a company that has developed a cloud platform for clinical trials."So cloud computing helps them do that and gives them a whole bunch of other advantages - the technology is kept up to date, you get the latest security, the latest features and so on."
Months of short days and long sleeves have banished any trace of color from my skin.And we have one molecule—and one reaction—to thank for the miracle of fake tanning.Yes, your cells might have some fake tanner in them right now.It s usefulness as a sun substitute was discovered by accident.In the 1950s a researcher named Eva Wittgenstein was giving DHA to children with glycogen storage disease, a disorder that affects their ability to break down a form of glucose.She noticed the chemical was staining their skin when it spilled from their mouths.
Alien life might be closer than we think.Astronomers have found organic compounds on Ceres, raising the possibility that it could support extraterrestrial life.The term organic is a bit vague in a chemistry context but refers to compounds made primarily of carbon bound to hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and a few other elements.Scientists get worked up about organic compounds because all known life relies heavily on them.A research team led by Maria Cristina De Sanctis, an astronomer at the Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali–Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, analyzed data collected by NASA s Dawn probe.The group looked pixel-by-pixel at light coming from the Ernutet crater, named after a cobra goddess from ancient Egypt.
In that sense, you re not unlike a computer: Code produces the output that is your body.In fact, for the past two decades, scientists have used actual DNA as if it were literal code, a process called DNA computing, to do things like calculating square roots.Today, researchers report in the journal Nature Communications that they ve deployed DNA to detect antibodies—soldiers your body produces to fight viruses and such—by running a sequence of molecular instructions.In a test tube, you mix a bunch of DNA molecules, says Maarten Merkx, a biochemist at Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands and a lead author on the new paper.A single strand from one double-helical molecule of DNA attaches to a strand from a different DNA molecule, a process called hybridization that creates a new DNA molecule, which in turn combines with yet more DNA in the mix.Think about what happens if you mix orange juice and champagne: You get something novel and quite frankly better.
Lithium-ion batteries power everything from phones to electricity grids but their lifespan is incredibly short, plus they're difficult to recycle.The team has developed a so-called flow battery which stores energy in liquid solutions.This solution modifies the molecules in electrolytes, ferrocene and viologen to make them stable, water-soluble, and stop them degrading over time.Dissolved in water, the molecules lose just one per cent of capacity for every 1,000 charging cycle.The battery is non-toxic, non-corrosive and lasts for far longer than current Lithium-ion models – estimated at a decade, rather than months.Batteries of this type are often used as a storage solution for renewable, unpredictable energy sources such as wind and solar, but require regular electrolyte maintenance.
vector control sucks both rather and more blood from the people who are infected by the malaria, and now researchers at Stockholm university, the Swedish university of agricultural sciences and KTH, come to the conclusion the reason behind this.the malaria parasite secretes a molecule, HMBPP, which makes the red blood cells give off more carbon dioxide and other volatile substances that are irresistible for vector control.HMBPP also allows the mosquito to eat more , " says Ingrid Faye, Stockholm university, in a press release.today is mainly used mosquito nets and insect repellents to protect humans against malaria.the mosquitoes are becoming resistant to insektsgifterna means that new methods must constantly be developed.According to the research, published in the journal Science, the discovery will lead to new non-toxic means to combat malaria can be designed.
Sunscreen isn t just for summer — everyone from skiers to the skin-conscious slathers on the stuff.If future tests pan out, their hope is the molecules could go some of the way toward improving sunscreen technology.People use sunscreen to prevent painful sunburns and to slow down signs of skin aging such as wrinkles.Here are just a few examples: One of the better ingredients on the market to protect against UVA rays, avobenzone, needs stabilizing additives to keep it from breaking down and losing effectiveness in sunscreen formulations.And the sunscreen component oxybenzone has been shown to damage coral reefs, prompting Hawaii officials to recommend other ingredients to ocean-goers.The ocean teems with life that produces natural sunscreens.
A chip that can diagnose a potentially fatal condition faster than the best lab in the country, a camera that can see so deeply into a pill it can tell if its molecular structure has more in common with a real or counterfeit tablet, and a system that can help identify if a patient has a mental illness just from the words they use: IBM is betting that a mix of AI and new hardware can make all three possible within the coming years.IBM's research labs are already working on turning these concepts into fully-fledged healthcare tools, combining the company's existing machine learning and artificial intelligence systems with newer kit including revamped silicon and millimetre wave phased array sensors.By combining such information with high-powered cameras and other sensors, hyperimaging could allow clinicians to see into, say, a tablet at a molecular level, to determine whether it's a safe pharmaceutical or one of the medications that make up the multibillion-dollar counterfeit drugs market.While hyperimaging may be coming to a self-driving car near you soon -- well, in the next five years or so -- and a pharmacist near you a couple of years later than that, there's no reason why even further out we might be able to turn our smartphones to the same task too.Eventually, should the necessary sensors and imaging kit be incorporated into phones, then hyperimaging could be used to help people with allergies and illness like coeliac disease to scan their food for traces of substances that trigger their condition.Take Alzheimer's disease, for example: the neurobiological changes that cause signs of the disease will have done their work before any of those signs are evident in the patient.
People who have experimented with LSD know that its mind-altering effects can last upwards of 18 to 24 hours, which is unusual for a hallucinogenic drug.After nearly 30 years of research, scientists have finally mapped the physical structure of this fascinating molecule, revealing why it tends to linger in the brain.New research published in the science journal Cell shows that the unique shape of lysergic acid diethylamide LSD allows it to fit snugly within serotonin receptors, and in a way that locks it in for an extended period of time.Importantly, these insights could inspire the development of novel therapeutics to treat conditions such as anxiety and chronic headaches.Ever since Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann accidentally synthesised LSD in 1938, scientists have wondered how the drug works in the brain, and why its potent effects can last as long as 18 to 24 hours.When I was younger, and The Grateful Dead was still around, I would occasionally go to Grateful Dead concerts, noted structural biologist Bryan Roth, lead author of the new study, in a statement.
People who have experimented with LSD know that its mind-altering effects can last upwards of 18 to 24 hours, which is unusual for a hallucinogenic drug.After nearly 30 years of research, scientists have finally mapped the physical structure of this fascinating molecule, revealing why it tends to linger in the brain.New research published in the science journal Cell shows that the unique shape of lysergic acid diethylamide LSD allows it to fit snugly within serotonin receptors, and in a way that locks it in for an extended period of time.This may explain why its effects last so long even though the doses are so small, and why the hallucinogenic drug is so potent.Importantly, these insights could inspire the development of novel therapeutics to treat conditions such as anxiety and chronic headaches.Ever since Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann accidentally synthesized LSD in 1938, scientists have wondered how the drug works in the brain, and why its potent effects can last as long as 18 to 24 hours.