They could make it easier to build a working device, scientists sayThe Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology.Quantum computers may promise a giant leap forward in performance and efficiency, but none of that can happen until we figure out a practical way to build them.Building quantum computers is difficult because the qubits they're made with tend to be highly unstable.While traditional bits represent data as 0s or 1s, qubits are distinguished by what's known as superposition, or the ability to be both 0 and 1 at once.While calculations require that qubits not only maintain their state but also interact with one another, the quantum objects that have been used to create qubits -- ions or electrons, for example -- have so far only been able to maintain a certain quantum state for a short time.
The slow memories threaten to hold back progress.But a group of researchers believe they have found the solution in a technology that is based on the terahertzstrålning.By changing the magnetic field to electromagnetic radiation can computers really work and lagringsminnen will be thousands of times faster, write researchers at the Moscow institute of physics and technology in a new report.They want to use terahertzstrålning, or t-rays, in order to reset the memory cells in the ministry of employment and the lagringsminnen – the small elements where the ones and zeros are stored, reports Engadget.By speeding up the process can the hardware work huge very quickly.T-rays are a type of electromagnetic radiation is located between infrared light and microwaves in the frequency band.
Scientists from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) and the Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (IRE) of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), in collaboration with their colleagues from Finland, have developed a new type of optical fiber that has an extremely large core diameter and preserves the coherent properties of light.The results of the study are promising for constructing high-power pulsed fiber lasers and amplifiers, as well as polarization-sensitive sensors.There are two principal parameters that often need to be preserved: the distribution of light intensity in cross section and the polarization of light (a property that specifies the oscillation directions of the electric or magnetic field in a plane perpendicular to the wave propagation direction).In their study, the researchers managed to fulfill both conditions.It varies along two orthogonal axes, and its diameters change proportionally along the fiber.An optical fiber is generally a very thin flexible strand drawn from glass or transparent plastic.
A team of researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) and the Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics (ITAE) of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), in collaboration with a colleague from RIKEN (Institute for Physical and Chemical Research in Japan), has provided theoretical proof of the existence of a new class of materials.The discovery will find use in implantable electronics, alongside devices based on graphene, nanotubes, and a number of other promising materials.This might give rise to a new direction in search for "nonmetallic" half-metals, i.e., those that do not contain atoms of transition metals, such as nickel, manganese, and lanthanum.Around the turn of the century, the use of giant magnetoresistance materials in magnetic field sensors (used to read data in hard disk drives) has enabled the storage of much larger amounts of data on HDDs.They were first predicted based on computer simulations and later proved to exist experimentally.As for spin-down electrons, their energy is too high, and therefore they cannot carry charge current.
Under the nom de guerre of Redrock Biometrics, the company’s technology is waging war on the world’s legions of identification cards, pin numbers, passwords, and voice identification technologies with a combination of off-the-shelf hardware and proprietary software to identify palm-prints to verify user identity.Redrock Biometrics’ chairman, Lenny Kontsevich, said that the company sees broad applications in authenticating payments in virtual worlds, physical security, and cash withdrawals among other transactions.“It has a rich structure and can be captured by any camera touchlessly.”After Kontsevich worked with the startup Kaching!, the graduate of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology went to the lab to demonstrate (using only existing database technology) the matching software algorithms between palm prints and their unique signatures that would become the basis for Redrock Biometrics.The two absconded from Leap Motion in 2015 and founded Redrock biometrics on the basis of Kontsevich’s work and Hua Yang’s background in machine learning and visualization.Redrock’s technology converts a palm image into a unique signature and authenticates the user in 10- to 100-milliseconds depending on CPU speed, according to a statement.
Physicists from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) and Royal Holloway, University of London, have demonstrated an effect known as quantum wave mixing on an artificial atom.Their results, published in the journal Nature Communications, could help develop quantum electronics of an entirely new kind.Researchers from MIPT's Laboratory of Artificial Quantum Systems led by Professor Oleg Astafiev teamed up with their British colleagues to examine a superconducting quantum system, which is physically equivalent to a single atom.Cooled to ultralow temperatures, this device emitted and absorbed single quanta of microwave radiation -- the same way that an atom interacts with photons of light.Artificial atoms, which are at the heart of this study, are a staple of quantum optics experiments.Physicists use these systems to investigate the processes that are otherwise hard to study, such as the emission and absorption of several photons.
An international team of researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Forschungszentrum Jülich, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, the Institut de Biologie Structurale, and the Max Planck Institute of Biophysics has determined the 3-D structure of channelrhodopsin 2, a membrane protein widely used in optogenetics to control nerve cells with light.In addition, the methods of optogenetics are used to study the properties of natural neuron networks, which are responsible for emotion, decision-making, and other complex processes in living organisms.Optogenetics was Nature's "Method of the Year 2010," as well as being named among Science's "Breakthroughs of 2010 and Insights of the Decade."Because ChR2 works fast and is relatively harmless to cells, it is the current go-to solution for nerve cell activation.For example, it is possible to increase the current it generates or alter the wavelength of light it responds to.Researchers can even combine several protein variants for a distinct response at various wavelengths of light.
Conversational artificial intelligence (AI) is a task of having meaningful dialogue with a user and acting as human as possible.Dialogue agents -- programmes capable for having a conversation -- surround us everywhere: from bots that we chat with on messengers to personal assistants and voice control interfaces.The competition gathered chatbots developed to define which techniques would make a chatbot appear intelligent.The competition was held in two stages: At first round, organized by the Neural Networks and Deep Learning Lab this summer, the participants of the hackathon talked to the systems.Reflecting the wider AI boom, over the past few years the NIPS conference has grown from a small gathering of a few hundred academics to a sprawling event with thousands of attendees, big-name corporate recruiters, and lavish parties.Six teams from the University of Wroclaw, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, McGill University, KAIST & AIBrain & Crosscert, UMass Lowell's Text Machine Lab & Trinity College, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, and Fudan University took part in the competition finals.
From Jan. 29 until Feb. 4, 50 participants that pass the test will have a chance to apply their knowledge to improve machine translation technology.The deadline for the qualification round is Jan. 8.To participate, sign up on the event's website.DeepHack.Babel is the fifth in a series of DeepHack events organized by MIPT's Neural Networks and Deep Learning Lab.This year, the hackathon will focus on machine translation, with a special emphasis on neural machine translation (NMT) -- a method that is gaining popularity among researchers and has already found commercial application.Contrary to the conventional statistical approach, NMT is based on artificial neural networks, which helps to achieve higher-quality translation.
A joint team of scientists from Russia and the United States designed a method for marking dividing stem cells with three different labels.The new method will increase the accuracy and speed of stem cell division analysis and reveal new populations of stem cells.The research team, led by Grigori Enikolopov, was made up of specialists from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), Stony Brook University (USA), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (USA), and Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology of the Russian Academy of Sciences.Usually, tissue regeneration proceeds in the following manner: After stem cells duplicate themselves, some of their offspring are used to restock the supply of stem cells, and some convert into other types of cells in order to repair the loss or damage.What the scientists aim to discover are the mechanisms common to all types of stem cells and the ways they can be influenced or improved.As a stem cell duplicates itself, it goes through a stage called the S phase (see fig.
We're told Bruce Willis is standing byThe next time a giant asteroid threatens the Earth, Russia may just know how many megatons of explosives are needed to blow the thing to smithereens.Boffins from the Rosatom State Nuclear Energy Corporation and the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) have been busy modelling the impact of a nuclear explosion on an Armageddon-sized asteroid by building miniature models of the space rocks and blasting them with laser beams.Russia has history when it comes to asteroids: on 15 February 2013 a meteor exploded at 97,000ft over Chelyabinsk Oblast, in the Ural Mountains region, with a force of 26 to 33 times the energy released by the Hiroshima atomic bomb.Minds have since been focused by the potential damage a much larger asteroid could cause.There are two courses of action when faced with a civilisation-ending rock hurtling towards the earth at 20km per second – either deflect it or blow it into tiny pieces that will burn up harmlessly in the atmosphere.
An international team of scientists jointly with Professor Artem Oganov of Skoltech and the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology worked out the chemical composition, crystal structure, and properties of Na2B30 -- a compound that remains stable at standard conditions and has long been the subject of heated debate.The results of the study were published in Physical Review B.Boron is a unique element capable of forming complex crystal modifications, all of which are superhard.Moreover, boron and metal compounds -- borides -- often have highly complex chemical compositions and crystal structures which cannot always be uniquely determined through experiment.Many borides display remarkable features of superhard, superconducting, or thermoelectric materials.In the paper published in Physical Review B, the scientists looked at sodium borides at standard conditions.
Moscow, March 29, 2018 - Researchers from the longevity biotech company GERO and Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) have shown that physical activity data acquired from wearables can be used to produce digital biomarkers of aging and frailty.The breakthrough demonstration untaps the emerging potential of combining wearable sensors and AI technologies for continuous health risk monitoring with real-time feedback to life & health insurance, healthcare and wellness providers.Various biomarkers of age, such as DNA methylation, gene expression or circulating blood factor levels could be used to build accurate «biological clocks» to obtain individual biological age and the rate of aging estimations.Yet large-scale biochemical or genomic profiling is still logistically difficult and expensive for any practical applications beyond academic research.Recent introduction of affordable wearable sensors enables collection and cloud-storing of personal digitized activity records.Peter Fedichev, Ph.D., GERO Science Director, head of MIPT lab, explains: «Artificial Intelligence is a powerful tool in pattern recognition and has demonstrated outstanding performance in visual object identification, speech recognition, and other fields.
Scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and Skoltech have demonstrated the high-temperature superconductivity of actinium hydrides and discovered a general principle for calculating the superconductivity of hydrides based on the periodic table alone.The results of their study were published in The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters.High-temperature superconductivity is a phenomenon of zero electrical resistance in certain materials at temperatures above -196 C (the temperature of liquid nitrogen) that physicists, chemists and materials scientists worldwide have been intensely researching for decades, as room-temperature superconductors open up vast prospects for the power industry, transport, and other technology-driven sectors.Currently, the record holder in high-temperature superconductivity is hydrogen sulfide (H3S), which functions as a superconductor at 1.5 million atmospheres and temperatures of down to -70 oC.Such pressure levels can only be attained in a lab environment, not in real life, and the temperature is way below room temperature, so the search continues for new superconductors.Perhaps an even higher-temperature superconductivity can be attained in metal-hydrogen compounds.
Teams from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Peking University and The University of Tokyo placed in second, third and fourth places and were recognized with gold medals in the prestigious competition.ACM ICPC is the premier global programming competition conducted by and for the world's universities.For more than four decades, the competition has raised the aspirations and performance of generations of the world's problem solvers in computing sciences and engineering.The team that solves the most problems in the fewest attempts in the least cumulative time is declared the winner.Now in its 42nd year, ICPC has gathered more than 320,000 students from around the world to compete since its inception.As computing increasingly becomes part of the daily routines of a growing percentage of the global population, the solution to many of tomorrow's challenges will be written with computing code.
Wireless charging is becoming an ever more popular way to juice up consumer gadgets, but an international team of scientists may have figured out how to scrap the mat too.Research by the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology offers a way to wirelessly transfer power consistently over longer distances than conventional methods.At present, wireless charging makes use of electromagnetic fields generated by induction coils that start working as soon as a supported device (such as a phone) comes into range.An alternative approach is far-field energy transfer, which requires two antennas, one sending electromagnetic waves to the other.Boffins have often proposed the approach as a way of transferring solar power from orbiting satellites to Earth.Difficulties with the size of the ground-based receiver and practicalities of the conversion process have led the likes of Elon "say what you mean" Musk to react somewhat negatively to the idea.
The paper, published in Diamond and Related Materials, describes a betavoltaic battery powered by the beta decay of the nickel-63 isotope giving 10 times the power of conventional commercial cells.Betavoltaics themselves are nothing new, using semiconductors to convert the energy of beta decay into electricity, and found use briefly in the 1970s in pacemakers due to their longevity.However, cheaper chemical batteries with their higher power densities (if shorter lifespans) won the day.The public perception and fear of all things radioactive at the time did the concept no favours either.The team at MIPT have come up with a way to deal with the power density problem by using nickel-63 as the power source (and a known quantity thanks to earlier research in both Russia and Bristol) and Schottky barrier-based diamond electrodes for the energy conversion in a novel configuration.200 of the diamond converters were interlaid with nickel-63 and stable nickel foil layers, with the power generated dependant on the thickness of the foil.
Biophysicists have developed a method for modifying the surface of micro- and nanoparticles -- tiny structures measuring between a thousandth and a millionth of a millimeter --by covering them with biological molecules.The paper was published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces.Its authors are researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBCh RAS), National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Sechenov University, and Macquarie University (Australia).Magic bullet: Seek and cureThe concept of a "magic bullet" was originally formulated around 1900 by Paul Ehrlich, the winner of the 1908 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine.When therapy and diagnostics are combined, this is known as theranostics.
Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and Tohoku University (Japan) have explained the puzzling phenomenon of particle-antiparticle annihilation in graphene, recognized by specialists as Auger recombination.Although persistently observed in experiments, it was for a long time thought to be prohibited by the fundamental physical laws of energy and momentum conservation.This particle, called the positron, was soon discovered experimentally.Several years later, scientists realized that the charge carriers in semiconductors -- silicon, germanium, gallium arsenide, etc.Electron-hole recombination accompanied by the emission of light provides the operating principle of semiconductor lasers, which are devices crucial for optoelectronics.The liberated energy is often lost to thermal vibrations of the neighboring atoms or picked up by other electrons (figure 1).
Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry & Electrochemistry (RAS), NUST MISIS, and MIPT, as well as participants from several other research centers, have described the biophysical principles of influenza's infiltration into the body's cells.The researchers have created a theoretical model describing the mechanical properties of the lipid membranes of both the virus and the targeted cells, making it possible to connect the mechanisms of membranes with cell resistance.Viruses often present the main threat to the human body, with diseases like Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Herpes, Hepatitis, Ebola and forms of influenza, among others, causing serious damage.These viruses invade the cells of the affected body by merging their membrane with the cell membrane or its organelles.Because of this unusual mechanism of penetration, it turned out that the viral infection process of cells often depends on the properties of the cell's lipid membrane, particularly its elasticity.In other words, the more difficult it is for viral proteins to mechanically deform the cell membrane, the less likely it is that the cell will be infected.
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