(Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology) Scientists from MIPT, Moscow Pedagogical State University and the University of Manchester have created a highly sensitive terahertz detector based on the effect of quantum-mechanical tunneling in graphene. The sensitivity of the device is already superior to commercially available analogs based on semiconductors and superconductors, which opens up prospects for applications of the graphene detector in wireless communications, security systems, radio astronomy, and medical diagnostics.
(Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology) Scientists from the Joint Institute for High Temperatures Russian Academy of Sciences (JIHT RAS) and Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) have experimentally confirmed the presence of an intermediate phase between the crystalline and liquid states in a monolayer dusty plasma system.
(Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology) Biotechnologists from MIPT have developed a method for extracting the active constituents from the fat of black soldier fly larvae. These compounds possess unique antimicrobial properties and can destroy bacteria that cause farm crop diseases and are resistant to antibiotics.
(Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology) Researchers cleared the obstacle that had prevented the creation of electrically driven nanolasers for integrated circuits. The approach enables coherent light source design on the scale not only hundreds of times smaller than the thickness of a human hair but even smaller than the wavelength of light emitted by the laser. This lays the foundation for ultrafast optical data transfer in the manycore microprocessors expected to emerge in the near future.
(Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology) Physicists have demonstrated new methods for controlling spin waves in nanostructured bismuth iron garnet films via short laser pulses. The solution has potential for applications in energy-efficient information transfer and spin-based quantum computing.
A group of scientists led by Artem Oganov, Professor at Skoltech and MIPT, and Dr. Ivan Troyan at the Institute of Crystallography of RAS have succeeded in synthesizing thorium decahydride (ThH10), a new superconducting material with a very high critical temperature (161 K).The results of their study supported by a Russian Science Foundation (RSF) grant were published in the journal Materials Today.A truly remarkable property of quantum materials, superconductivity is a complete loss of electrical resistance under quite particular, and sometimes, very harsh conditions.Until recently, the list of superconductors was topped by mercury-containing cuprate that becomes superconducting at 135 K (-138 C).This year, lanthanum decahydride, LaH10, has set a new record of -13 oС, which is very close to room temperature, although in the case of LaH10 superconductivity is achieved at nearly 2 million atmospheres, a pressure that can hardly be attained in real life.In 2018, Alexander Kvashnin, a research scientist at the lab directed by Skoltech and MIPT professor, Artem R. Oganov, predicted a new material, thorium polyhydride (ThH10), with a critical temperature of -32 oС at THE pressure of 1 million atmospheres.
Researchers from the U.S., Russia, and China have bent the rules of classical chemistry and synthesized a "forbidden" compound of cerium and hydrogen -- CeH9 -- which exhibits superconductivity at a relatively low pressure of 1 million atmospheres.The paper came out in Nature Communications.Superconductors are materials capable of conducting an electric current with no resistance whatsoever.They are behind the powerful electromagnets in particle accelerators, maglev trains, MRI scanners, and could theoretically enable power lines that deliver electricity from A to B without losing the precious kilowatts to thermal dissipation.Unfortunately, the superconductors known today can only work at very low temperatures (below -138 degrees Celsius), and latest record (-13 degrees Celsius) requires extremely high pressures of nearly 2 million atmospheres.However, coaxing hydrogen into a superconductive state would take a tremendous pressure of some 5 million atmospheres; compare with 3.6 million atmospheres at the center of the Earth.
A group of scientists from Skoltech's Computational and Data-Intensive Science and Engineering Center (CDISE) won the Best Paper Award at the prestigious 5th IEEE Internet of People conference (IoP 2019) for their research in artificial intelligence which helped them find a connection between an eSports player's movements and skill level.Their research findings show that machine learning methods help accurately predict a player's skill level in 77% of cases.In just a few years, eSports that has its roots in video games for schoolkids has evolved into a full-fledged industry with professional teams, coaches, and huge investments.Master's students from the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (Skoltech), Moscow, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) and the State University of Aerospace Instrumentation (SUAI), St. Petersburg, led by Skoltech professors, Andrey Somov and Evgeny Burnaev, looked for a connection between the proficiency and body movements of an eSports player seated on a chair."We assumed that there could be a link between a player's body movements and skill level.We suspected that professional players and beginners would react differently to the same event," explains the first author of the study and Skoltech master student, Anton Smerdov.
Known as a second-order memristor, the new device is based on hafnium oxide and offers prospects for designing analog neurocomputers imitating the way a biological brain learns.The findings are reported in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces.It stores data in the form of synapses, a network of connections between the nerve cells, or neurons.Loosely speaking, a high resistance encodes a zero, and a low resistance encodes a one.This is analogous to how a synapse conducts a signal between two neurons (one), while the absence of a synapse results in no signal, a zero."The problem with this solution is that the device tends to change its behavior over time and breaks down after prolonged operation," said the study's lead author Anastasia Chouprik from MIPT's Neurocomputing Systems Lab.
Russia's Center for Artificial Intelligence (AI) Research under the National Technology Initiative based on MIPT and Huawei agreed to cooperate.As a first step, Huawei has already translated into Chinese the Artificial Intelligence report (Almanac), released by the Center for Artificial Intelligence (AI) Research in June.Based on this report, Chinese experts will better learn about the leaders of the Russian AI industry and will be able to find new partnerships.The first Almanac provides an overview of the current state of the AI industry in Russia and worldwide, including core technologies and applications, key companies, universities, and people -- both researchers and opinion leaders."The lack of high-quality information leads to potential errors in management decisions," says Igor Pivovarov, Chief analyst of the Center for Artificial Intelligence (AI) Research.We are confident that this will contribute to the growth of the market and the adoption of the right management decisions at all levels".
WASHINGTON, D.C., July 23, 2019 -- Diamonds aren't just a girl's best friend -- they're also crucial components for hard-wearing industrial components, such as the drill bits used to access oil and gas deposits underground.But a cost-efficient method to find other suitable materials to do the job is on the way.Diamond is one of the only materials hard and tough enough for the job of constant grinding without significant wear, but as any imminent proposee knows, diamonds are pricey.Using a computational algorithm, Russian theorists have published just such a predictive tool in the Journal of Applied Physics, from AIP Publishing.As fiber optics, with its fast transmission rate, replaced copper wire communications, so too do materials scientists search to find new materials with desirable properties to support modern technology.When it comes to the mining, space and defense industries, it's all about finding materials that don't break easily, and for that, the optimal combination of hardness and fracture toughness is required.
Shown in figure 1, a lamp of this kind relies on the same principle that powered the old TVs using cathode-ray tubes: A negatively charged electrode, or cathode, at one end of a vacuum tube serves as an electron gun.A potential difference of up to 10 kilovolts accelerates the emitted electrons toward a flat positively charged phosphor-coated electrode -- the anode -- at the opposite end of the tube.This electron bombardment results in light.Cathodoluminescent lamps have the advantage of being able to emit light almost at any wavelength, from the red to ultraviolet, depending on which fluorescent material is used.Novel ultraviolet light bulbs would be a particularly timely development, considering the recent ban on household appliances using mercury under the Minamata Convention, a United Nations treaty signed by 128 countries that came into effect in August 2017.Among other products, the ban targets ultraviolet fluorescent tubes, widely used for greenhouse lighting and other applications.
Since Andre Geim and Kostya Novoselov received the 2010 Nobel Prize in physics for studying the unique electronic properties of graphene, the interest toward this material has never waned.Graphene is truly two-dimensional: It consists of a one-atom-thick layer of carbon, which is one of the reasons why its properties are so amazing.It is thin but mechanically strong, impermeable even to helium atoms, and conducts electricity and heat extremely well.The high mobility of electrons in graphene makes it a promising material for ultrafast photodetectors, including those operating in the terahertz range.THz radiation, also known as T-waves, is equally difficult to generate and to detect.This gave rise to the notion of a "terahertz gap," which refers to the roughly 0.1-10 THz frequency band in the electromagnetic spectrum.
Besides glowing when irradiated with ultraviolet and blue light, it is exceedingly small and stable under high temperatures.The authors of the paper, published in the journal Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences, believe the protein holds prospects for fluorescence microscopy.This technique is used in research on cancer, infectious diseases, and organ development, among other things.Fluorescence microscopy proved so scientifically valuable that one Nobel Prize was awarded for its discovery, followed by another one for radically improving the method's accuracy."For one thing, our protein is more thermostable than its analogues: It only denaturates at 68 degrees Celsius," said the paper's lead author Vera Nazarenko from the MIPT Laboratory of Structural Analysis and Engineering of Membrane Systems.On top of that, it can emit light in the absence of oxygen."
They discovered that aging in nematodes is partially programmed and can be therapeutically reversed by a number of FDA-approved drugs.C. elegans, a nonparasitic roundworm, is one of the most intensively studied animals on Earth.Details remained unanswered, as to how such a dramatic intervention affects gene expression and aging to achieve this extension, and whether it can be mimicked therapeutically, ideally with the drugs already approved for human use.To answer this question, an international team of researchers led by Peter Fedichev, a founder of the longevity biotech startup Gero, required gene-activity data from nematodes with a wide variety of lifespans, at many ages across their lifespans.The UAMS researchers created the necessary strains (mutant worms in a constant, normal background) as well as normal, wild-type worms after suppression of selected target genes, and assessed their expression profiles at a range of adult ages.In that case, the radical extension of lifespan would require complex interventions, and studies of animals with drastically slowed aging would not help us in our search for a truly effective anti-aging therapy", explains Peter Fedichev, the principal investigator of the Gero/Skoltech/MIPT group.
Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and their colleagues from Germany and the Netherlands have achieved material magnetization switching on the shortest timescales, at a minimal energy cost.They have thus developed a prototype of energy-efficient data storage devices.The paper was published in the journal Nature.Maintaining data centers consumes over 3% of the power generated worldwide, and this figure is growing.While writing and reading information is a bottleneck for IT development, the fundamental laws of nature actually do not prohibit the existence of fast and energy-efficient data storage.The most reliable way of storing data is to encode it as binary zeros and ones, which correspond to the orientations of the microscopic magnets, known as spins, in magnetic materials.
When you were at school, you likely learned about the Earth’s water cycle: how water evaporates from the surface of oceans and lakes when they are warmed by the Sun, rising into the atmosphere and settling as clouds, then falling back to Earth as rain.But now scientists have discovered a very different sort of water cycle that could be operating on Mars.Billions of years ago, Mars used to have water on its surface.But over time, this water was lost until only a small amount of frozen water remained on the surface and a small amount of water vapor existed in the atmosphere.Now scientists at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research have created a computer simulation which shows how water vapor moves through the Martian atmosphere, and which could explain why Mars lost its water over time while Earth did not.The start of the Martian water cycle happens only every two Earth years during summer on Mars’s southern hemisphere.
Weyl semimetals are a recently discovered class of materials, in which charge carriers behave the way electrons and positrons do in particle accelerators.Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and Ioffe Institute in St. Petersburg have shown that these materials represent perfect gain media for lasers.The 21st-century physics is marked by the search for phenomena from the world of fundamental particles in tabletop materials.In some crystals, electrons move as high-energy particles in accelerators.MIPT physicists have turned this search inside-out, proving that reactions forbidden for elementary particles can also be forbidden in the crystalline materials known as Weyl semimetals.In a semiconductor laser, radiation results from the mutual annihilation of electrons and the positive charge carriers called holes.
A physical effect known as superinjection underlies modern light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers.For decades this effect was believed to occur only in semiconductor heterostructures -- that is, structures composed of two or more semiconductor materials.This opens up entirely new prospects for the development of light sources.The paper came out Feb. 21 in the journal Semiconductor Science and Technology.They enable laser printers and high-speed internet.But a mere 60 years ago, no one would imagine semiconductors being used as materials for bright light sources.
ICPC is the oldest and most prestigious competitive programming event worldwide.The announcement was made at the Alfândega Congress Center in Porto, Portugal, where this year's ICPC finals end April 5.ICPC Executive Director Bill Poucher, who is also a professor at Baylor University and a member of the Association for Computing Machinery, congratulated Moscow on being selected: "We are here at ICPC 2019 Porto meeting the MIPT delegation planning ICPC 2020 Moscow for June 2020.We will bring together the most gifted students of computing who have the capability of inventing software solutions to the problems of tomorrow.I look forward to having the greatest World Finals in ICPC history in Moscow when I have the opportunity to welcome everyone by saying in Russian 'Dobro pozhalovat!'"Moscow has never been the venue of ICPC, though the competition was previously held in St. Petersburg in 2013 and in Yekaterinburg the following year.