As you read this article, your eyes are capturing light and your brain is decoding it into tangible fragments of information - things like colors, edges, words, and ideas.At the same time, other areas of the brain are reflexively using light-derived information to control other visual functions, such as programming biological clocks, controlling eye muscle movements as you read, and even influencing your mood.A lot of this non-image-forming activity happens in a small, and not yet well understood, section of the midbrain called the thalamus in such structures as the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (vLGN).Over the next two years of his dissertation research, Ubadah Sabbagh, a Virginia Tech translational biology, medicine, and health graduate student working at the Fralin Biomedical Research Institute at VTC, will create the first atlas of the vLGN's cellular and molecular characteristics."The vLGN is a remarkably unexplored area of the brain," said Sabbagh, who is also a Society for Neuroscience Fellow."To advance our understanding, I'm generating the first comprehensive description of the spatial distribution and molecular signatures of the vLGN's primary cells.
With his team down by four, James takes a quick step, beats his defender, and jumps, sending the ball in a high arc toward the basket.That fateful cramp took him out of the game, but it also thrust the entrepreneurial James into a new venture—the wild world of sports supplements.Unsatisfied with the options on the market, James set about developing his own line of specialized products; last fall, with celebrity partners Arnold Schwarzenegger, Lindsey Vonn, and Cindy Crawford, he launched Ladder.The company makes four workout supplements, promising better results through its high-quality ingredients and scientifically backed blends of superfoods, probiotics, and protein powders.Dietary supplements are a more than $45 billion industry, and they got that way by promising amazing results in nearly every aspect of your physical well-being, from bigger muscles to better heart health.More than half of American adults regularly take some kind of supplement, whether fish oil, vitamin E or D, or protein powders.
Natural Remedies for Narcolepsy are used either together with an herbal treatment or as another option. Natural Remedies for Narcolepsy are to reduce the symptoms and to improve the physical condition but also the mental state of the patient.
Three UC Santa Barbara junior faculty members have been awarded the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE).Spencer Smith, in electrical and computer engineering, Phillip Christopher, in chemical engineering, and Andrea Young in physics join more than 300 others across the country in receiving the award.The PECASE is the highest honor bestowed by the U.S. government on outstanding scientists and engineers who are beginning their independent research careers and show exceptional promise for leadership in science and technology."The future of the College of Engineering depends to a great extent on our young faculty members, so every time they receive prestigious awards, we are delighted, knowing that the future is bright," said Rod Alferness, dean of UC Santa Barbara's College of Engineering."We therefore heartily congratulate both Phillip Christopher and Spencer Smith for receiving these important PECASE awards."Smith, whose research lies at the intersection of engineering and neuroscience, was nominated for the award by the National Institutes of Health.
CORVALLIS, Ore. - An Oregon State University scientist has received a $2.3 million, five-year grant to build on his promising research into a debilitating muscle-wasting syndrome that kills as many as 30% of the cancer patients it afflicts.Oleh Taratula of the OSU College of Pharmacy will use the award from the National Institutes of Health to lead an interdisciplinary team that includes Daniel Marks, a physician-scientist at Oregon Health & Sciences University.Marks specializes in treating the muscle-wasting syndrome, known as cachexia.The researchers' goal is to develop an effective treatment for cachexia based on nanoparticles loaded with messenger RNA.When the mRNA reaches the liver, it triggers the liver's cellular machinery to produce a key protein, follistatin, that's involved in building muscle mass.In addition to cancers of the stomach, lungs and pancreas, cachexia is associated with many other chronic illnesses including multiple sclerosis, renal failure, cystic fibrosis, Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and HIV.
A study out of Duke Health has found that eliminating approximately 300 calories from one’s daily diet has a significant protective effect on health.This beneficial effect was found in adults who were a healthy weight or who had ‘a few pounds’ to lose, according to the researchers, spurring an improvement in health markers like blood pressure and blood sugar that were already in the ‘good’ range.Duke Health has revealed the outcome of a recent trial it conducted as part of the National Institute of Health project CALERIE, which is focused on the idea that calorie restriction, not just weight loss, triggers the positive health changes associated with dieting.Duke Health’s trial involved 218 adults who were under the age of 50.During the first month of this trial, the participants ate three daily meals that reduced their daily caloric consumption by one-fourth, something intended to help them ease into the new diet.Over the next two years, the participants were instructed to eat at a 25-percent daily calorie reduction, though by the end they only averaged a 12-percent reduction over that time period.
RIT computing professor Linwei Wang, whose research is advancing non-invasive personalized healthcare for heart diseases, is receiving the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE).She and her group are also highly interested in applications in medical and healthcare challenges, especially for improving patient care in cardiac arrhythmia and other heart diseases.This award supports the development of computational foundation for integrating physics-based models into data-driven inference, which later found application in a computational system for non-invasive imaging of patient-specific cardiac rhythm disorders.Today, in a $3 million project funded by the National Institutes of Health, Wang is leading an international and multidisciplinary team of investigators to pursue the clinical use of this technology for guiding the interventional procedure for lethal ventricular arrhythmia.Collaborating with experts in patient-specific cardiac modeling and high-performance computing, Wang and her team have been developing novel uncertainty quantification techniques that -- leveraging advances in active machine learning -- enables the propagation of uncertainty from the data used to model elements and develop future predictions.Wang said this will help address the variability in personalized virtual organ models and help remove the major roadblock to the widespread adoption of these models in decision support.
PITTSBURGH (July 11, 2019) ...The University of Pittsburgh Departments of Bioengineering and Psychiatry received a $1,107,386 T32 award from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for a unique multidisciplinary program that prepares students with a background in engineering and other quantitative sciences for careers in mental health research.Tamer S. Ibrahim, PhD, associate professor of bioengineering, radiology, and psychiatry, and Howard Aizenstein, MD, PhD, Charles F. Reynolds III and Ellen G. Detlefsen Endowed Chair in Geriatric Psychiatry and professor of bioengineering and clinical and translational science, are co-principal investigators of the Bioengineering in Psychiatry Training Program.Predoctoral trainees in this program will benefit from a dual mentorship with advisors from both the Swanson School of Engineering and the School of Medicine.Their research will focus on neuroimaging, neurostimulation, and neural engineering - all of which are widely used in mental health research including mood disorder, anxiety disorder, psychotic disorder, suicide, and cognitive impairment.We're so excited to be part of training a new generation of interdisciplinary scientists to help lead these efforts."
The US is pursuing the extradition of Chinese researcher Gongda Xue from Switzerland on the charge of helping his sister, Yu “Joyce” Xue, steal secret information worth $550 million from pharmaceutical giant GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), Reuters reported.Why it matters: Prosecutors in the Xue case have labeled the siblings’ actions “economic warfare,” underscoring the harshness with which the US government is targeting researchers and scientists for their foreign ties.With the National Institutes of Health (NIH) pressuring institutions across the country to investigate suspicious activity, many have raised concerns about racial bias against employees of Chinese origin.Details: Ms. Xue pleaded guilty in the US last August to stealing GSK’s intellectual property, and is one of six co-defendants in the case.According to prosecutors, the scheme included creating a Chinese state-backed company named Renopharma that could utilize the stolen information and subsequently be sold for up to $2.2 billion.The Swiss Federal Criminal Court has labeled Mr. Xue a potential flight risk and has yet to agree on extradition terms.
- A gene called MYC has become one of the hottest targets for cancer researchers around the world.Now, researchers at Purdue University have discovered a novel set of MYC promoter G-quadruplex stabilizers that have demonstrated anticancer activity in human cancer cell cultures."The ability to incorporate MYC promoter G-quadruplex stabilizing activity into existing topoisomerase I inhibitors has shown promise in making them more potent as anticancer agents and in making cancer cells less likely to become resistant to them."The work has been supported by the National Cancer Institute and the National Institutes of Health.Cushman, whose cancer research work contributed to his election as a fellow of the National Academy of Inventors, said they discovered a novel class of indenoisoquinoline MYC promoter G-quadruplex stabilizers in collaboration with Danzhou Yang.Some of them also inhibit topoisomerase I, an enzyme that facilitates DNA replication and is produced in greater amounts in cancer cells.
Finally, the modified T-cells are re-administered to the patient.He and his team recently published a study in the Journal of Biological Chemistry that showed that thioredoxin extends the life of adoptive T-cells by neutralizing toxic reactive oxygen molecules (ROS)."It also metabolically programmed these cells to withstand nutrient competition with the tumor - which resulted in better tumor control."The team at MUSC used a strain of mice that overexpress thioredoxin and performed a standard ACT procedure.They observed increased T-cell viability and antitumor activity from mice overexpressing thioredoxin.They confirmed the findings by engineering human T-cells to overexpress thioredoxin and again observed prolonged T-cell lifespan at the site of the tumor.
What happened: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists of Chinese origin spoke to Nature about the increasingly toxic environment on US college campuses and institutions as the government’s crackdown on foreign influence in research has reached a fever pitch.The scientists describe unfair treatment at the hands of government officials, including surprise visits from law enforcement.Additionally, an open letter recently published by MIT’s president Rafael Reif details how “faculty members, post-docs, research staff and students… feel unfairly scrutinized, stigmatized and on edge — because of their Chinese ethnicity alone.”Why it’s important: While the National Institutes of Health (NIH) denies any racial bias in its investigations, evidence is mounting that it has been particularly focused on academics of Chinese origin.Among others, it has been involved in both MD Anderson’s firing of three “Asian” scientists and Emory University’s firing of two Chinese-American biomedical researchers since it began its initiative last August.MIT joins 10 other institutions, including the Committee of Concerned Scientists and Yale University, in raising concerns through an open letter, although it seems unlikely that the NIH will relent as long as the trade war rages on.
AURORA, Colo. (July 2, 2019) - A team of researchers from the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus has received a grant to commercialize a miniature microscope that fits on the head of a mouse and can peer deeply inside the living brain.The lens is liquid and can change shape when electricity is applied."We can image deep into the brain which makes it very attractive to a lot of neuroscience researchers," said Emily Gibson, PhD, assistant professor of bioengineering at CU Anschutz who helped create the microscope.The company 3i, founded by Karl Kilborn, along with Colin Monks, a former PhD student of CU Anschutz, and Abraham Kupfer, a former investigator at National Jewish, will produce the microscope.The company's manufacturing efforts will be guided by Baris Ozbay, PhD, who helped create the prototype while working in Gibson's lab and now works at 3i.In 2016, Restrepo and Gibson along with Juliet Gopinath, PhD, associate professor in electrical, computer and energy engineering at CU Boulder and Victor Bright, PhD, professor of mechanical engineering at CU Boulder won a $2 million grant, spread over three years, from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS).
Today, the University of Missouri announced that researchers in the College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources have received an $8.6 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to establish a new national research center.The Swine Somatic Cell Genome Editing Center will focus on aiding the development of biomedical treatments for human diseases such as cystic fibrosis.The center will be tasked with creating protocols to evaluate the safety and efficacy of reagents, which are the tools researchers use to edit and repair disease-related genes.In supporting the translation of swine research into treatments for human diseases, the center's mission will align with MU Chancellor Alexander Cartwright's translational precision medicine initiative, which -- in addition to setting the goal of doubling research funding and developing projects such as the precision medicine complex -- calls for adding three to five national, externally funded centers by 2023."As new gene-editing tools come down the pipeline, this center will develop more efficient processes to apply them to disease treatments," said Kevin Wells, co-lead researcher on the NIH grant and an associate professor of genetics in MU's Division of Animal Sciences."The first two years will focus on developing standard operating procedures and testing the efficacy of those procedures.
In the new beginning, it may just be astronaut sperm and Eve.Spanish scientists have recently proven that frozen human sperm is viable in zero-gravity environments — as in outer space — creating the possibility of a cosmic sperm bank.The researchers presented their findings at the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology annual meeting Monday in Vienna, Austria.“It’s not unreasonable to start thinking about the possibility of reproduction beyond the Earth,” says Dr Montserrat Boada, researcher at Dexeus Women’s Health in Barcelona, whose team worked with engineers at the Polytechnic University of Barcelona.In theory, this could lead to male astronauts being replaced by all-female crews in order to reproduce while in space, the Daily Mail reports.The concept isn’t as out-there as it might seem: In 2016, NASA published a paperarguing that single-sex crews are best for “cohesion during long-duration exploration missions,” and women are viewed as “more cooperative” in space, according to a 2014 study by the National Institutes of Health.
Charlottesville, VA (June 20, 2019) Fibrosis is often associated with many of the fatal diseases that pervade our globe, riddling organs with stiff tissue that diminishes their flexibility and leads to their failure.The University of Virginia School of Engineering, in conjunction with the UVA School of Medicine, launched a dedicated Fibrosis Initiative to address this increasingly prevalent threat, drawing from university-wide expertise in extracellular, computational, and quantitative biology."Through this initiative, we can leverage the collective expertise of UVA researchers that are conducting fibrosis related studies to establish those groundbreaking approaches."Sessions, led by moderators from across the country, will focus on a variety of topics relating to fibroblasts, including their origins and lineages; pathology; imaging; and role in shaping signaling networks.As the Fibrosis Initiative continues to promote national and international collaborations around fibroblasts, it will also focus on supporting related research at UVA, launching an initial cohort of multi-investigator "seed grants" in the interest of securing a National Institutes of Health "Center of Excellence" designation.Post-doctoral fellows will have the opportunity to shape the next wave of research on fibroblasts, and fibrosis more generally, with these funding supports.
The greatest challenge to reducing HIV in developing countries that have limited resources is the absence of point-of-care assays for viral load and the lack of trained technicians as well as modern laboratory infrastructure.There is therefore, an urgent need to develop a rapid, disposable, automated, and low-cost HIV viral load assay to increase timely access to HIV care and to improve treatment outcomes.He has teamed up with a researcher from FAU's Schmidt College of Medicine to combine their expertise in microchip fabrication, microfluidics, surface functionalization, lensless imaging, and biosensing to create a reliable, rapid and inexpensive device for viral load quantification at point-of-care settings with limited resources.The technology is being developed to be highly sensitive to quantify clinically relevant viral load during acute phase and virus rebound as well as inexpensive (costing less than $1), and quick (results in less than 45 minutes).Moreover, this technology is highly stable, and does not require refrigeration or a regular electric supply to enable HIV viral load at point-of-care settings."Providing vital and timely health care services to people in developing countries that don't have reliable electricity, refrigeration or state-of-the-art medical equipment is extremely challenging," said Waseem Asghar, Ph.D., principal investigator, an assistant professor in FAU's Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, and director of the Asghar Laboratory.
Known to be a potent anti-cancer agent in mouse studies, and found naturally in sea sponges -- though only ever in minuscule quantities -- the halichondrin class of molecule is so fiendishly complex that it had never been synthesized on a meaningful scale in the lab.Researchers led by Yoshito Kishi, Morris Loeb Professor of Chemistry, Emeritus, in Harvard's Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, have now synthesized sufficient quantities of E7130, a drug candidate from the halichondrin class, to enable for the first time rigorous studies of its biological activity, pharmacological properties, and efficacy, all conducted in collaboration with researchers at Japanese pharmaceutical company Eisai.The Kishi Lab's results, driven to completion through an intense, three-year research collaboration with Eisai, are published today in Scientific Reports, an open-access Nature journal.In preclinical studies, the research team has identified it not only as a microtubule dynamics inhibitor, as was previously recognized, but also as a novel agent to target the tumor microenvironment."We spent decades on basic research and made very dramatic progress," says Kishi, whose laboratory has, since 1978, received significant and sustaining support from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) of the National Institutes of Health to study the synthesis of natural products.The structure of the complete E7130 molecule derived by total synthesis is particularly challenging to replicate because it has 31 chiral centers, asymmetrical points that must each be correctly oriented.
Zebulun Wood, lecturer and co-director of the undergraduate Media Arts and Science program, will lead a team from the School of Informatics and Computing at IUPUI as part of a $1.6 million NIH R61 Phase 1 Exploratory/Development Grant recently awarded to Tom Hummer, assistant research professor of psychiatry at the Indiana University School of Medicine.Children and adolescents with ODD or CD, collectively knows as disruptive behavioral disorders (DBDs), often have difficulties with social perspective taking that contribute to poor empathy, disruptive behaviors, and aggression.Wood and selected students from the School of Informatics and Computing will create multiple scenarios that children might experience in the real world, such as in a school cafeteria, classroom, or living room."We want to create situations that kids really live through, so they can better understand all sides of the interactions they have every day," says Hummer.Wood says, "The Media Arts and Science students' skills acquired from the 3D animation and game design and development specializations are perfectly aligned to create these empathy training exercises for the study.With positive data, there is a large promise to expand the use of VR in mental health domains such as meditation or phobias, or PTSD.
Sleeping under the glow of a television screen may result in gradual weight gain, a new study warns.Researchers with the NIH’s National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences looked at women ages 35 to 74 years and found a link between sleeping with artificial light, weight gain, and increased risk of becoming obese.The study joins a growing body of research into the negative effects of artificial light.Artificial light is everywhere — it comes from your phone, smartwatch, tablet, television, and light bulbs.Attempts to reduce nighttime exposure to artificial light is close to futile for many people.Exposure to artificial light often comes from one’s surrounding environment, including street lamps outside one’s home and glowing billboards on the side of the road.