The coronavirus outbreak was first referred to as an epidemic, then a pandemic. Nowm you might be hearing scientists describing Covid-19 as ‘endemic’.So, what’s the difference between these terms? If an epidemic refers to a disease that spreads rapidly within a community or region, a pandemic is an epidemic that has spread worldwide – crossing international boundaries and affecting a large number of people.The government’s chief science adviser, Sir Patrick Vallance, recently told a select committee on national security it’s “likely” that Covid-19 will become endemic. The definition of endemic, in the context of Covid-19, is a disease or something that is native to or commonly found within an area.The suggestion here is that Covid-19 could become endemic in the UK, like the flu – with recurring outbreaks.“Now of course we can’t be certain, but I think it’s unlikely we’ll end up with a truly sterilising vaccine – i.e. something that completely stops infection,” Vallance told MPs. “It’s likely that this disease will circulate and be endemic.”Many experts on the Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (Sage) think this is “a likely outcome”, he added. “Clearly, as management becomes better, as you get vaccination which would decrease the chance of infection and severity of disease – or whatever the profiles of the vaccines are – this then starts to look more like annual flu than anything else. That may be the direction we go in.” Related...
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What would make Covid-19 endemic? Researchers Jeffrey Shaman and Marta Galanti, from Columbia Mailman School, identified some of the key factors that would contribute to Covid-19 becoming endemic. These include: the risk of reinfection, how widely available (and effective) a vaccine is, as well as potential seasonality of the virus and interactions with other viral infections that may alter its transmission.Their paper, published in the journal Science, explores a scenario where immunity to the virus diminishes within a year – a rate similar to another type of coronavirus that causes mild respiratory illness. If this were the case, there would be annual outbreaks of Covid-19, much like the flu, they said.But if immunity to the virus lasted longer, we might experience what would initially appear to be an elimination of Covid-19 followed by a resurgence after a few years.Either way, it’s probably coming back. “Should reinfection prove commonplace, and barring a highly effective vaccine delivered to most of the world’s population, SARS-CoV-2 will likely settle into a pattern of endemicity,” the authors said.“Whether reinfections will be commonplace, how often they will occur, how contagious re-infected individuals will be, and whether the risk of severe clinical outcomes changes with subsequent infection remain to be understood.” So, when might this happen?Judging by what makes flu endemic, it’s likely we’ll know whether Covid-19 is endemic by Christmas next year, according to Dr Julian Tang, a consultant virologist at the Leicester Royal Infirmary and honorary associate professor in the Department of Respiratory Sciences at University of Leicester.By this point, he envisages about 80% of people will have been infected with Covid-19 (if not more). By 2022, he predicts we’ll see some form of seasonality kick in – as with flu – where there are Covid-19 outbreaks over the winter months.“If you look at the influenza pandemics, they’ve all become seasonal after it’s been through the whole world – and then the seasonality and endemicity is driven by the new birth cohort each year,” Dr Tang explains.Adults get the virus, then recover or die, and all the while new babies are being born. “The massive first wave of the pandemic sweeps through the population that’s susceptible, then dies out – as we saw with the 2009 pandemic and as we’ve seen with previous pandemics of flu. Then you get a seasonal spiking.”Related...
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Flu viruses, seasonal coronaviruses and other respiratory viruses tend to spike in winter for a few reasons, but mainly due to human immunity and climate.Dr Tang points out that cooler weather drives people indoors into crowded spaces. At the same time, immunity dwindles if we’re not getting enough vitamin D, and viruses tend to survive better in colder temperatures.The hope is that vaccines will protect people from the most severe symptoms of the virus by boosting an immune response. Experts suggest we’ll probably need multiple vaccines (possibly yearly ones) to protect us from the worst outcomes of Covid-19.Will Covid-19 ever disappear completely?Total eradication of the virus is very unlikely, but not impossible. For example, smallpox, a virus that was very contagious and often deadly (three in every 10 people who got it died), was eradicated in 1980 thanks to vaccination programmes. Professor Hans Heesterbeek, an expert in theoretical epidemiology at Utrecht University, in the Netherlands, wrote in a piece for The Conversation that if vaccines are found to prevent clinical disease, strongly reduce transmission and cause long-lasting immunity to Covid-19, eradication of the illness is possible.“But realistically this is unlikely,” he said. “Eradication is notoriously difficult, even for diseases for which we have almost perfect vaccines and permanent immunity. Endemic disease is therefore the most likely outcome.”Related...
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InfoWorld’s 2020 Bossie Award winnersImage by IDGLike a benevolent Borg, open source sweeps across the software universe year after year, bringing innovation to everything it touches. And year after year, InfoWorld’s Best of Open Source Awards, aka the Bossies, mark the progress. Among the 25 winners of our 2020 Bossies, you’ll find the usual rich array of leading-edge projects—tools for building better web applications, more accurate machine learning models, crisper data visualizations, more flexible workflows, faster and more scalable databases and analytics, and much more. Read on to discover the best that modern open source has to offer. To read this article in full, please click here
In February, Chinese electric vehicle company Polestar revealed a gorgeous sedan concept called the Precept that featured a stunning design along with an interior chock-full of sustainable material. But as with most concepts, it wasn’t clear whether the Precept would ever be a real car. Today, Polestar sweeps away that uncertainty by announcing that the seductive sedan will indeed be going into production.
Polestar started out as the performance sub-brand of Volvo and now has emerged as one of the more interesting Chinese EV companies on the market. The company, which is jointly owned by Volvo and Volvo’s parent company Geely, recently started delivering the Polestar 2, its electric sedan with native Android Automotive, to customers in...
... but humans still needed to fix the 'Hygiene Compartment' NASA has conjured imaginings of an orbital Roomba after boasting of a "sweep" of the ISS interior by an Astrobee robot as hardworking 'nauts keep the outpost up and running.…
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Outbreak spans 43 US states and 7 Canadian provinces. Cases are expected to rise.
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Panda Free Antivirus incorporates common luxuries, for example, a VPN customer and an interference-free gaming mode.In any case, its malware security is a stage down from the best antivirus programming and the organization requests that you share data about your PC use.Panda likewise offers four paid Windows antivirus items, which you can buy yearly.Buy Panda Dome Essential program begins at $30.00 per year for one gadget yet can likewise be purchased for two years $31.00 or three years costing $61.00 yearly.It ups the assurance with encryption, parental controls, and committed ransomware securities.A heuristic screen watches code and conduct.
ZoomInfo, a global leader in go-to-market intelligence solutions, today announced that it has earned 10 No.1 rankings in G2’s Summer 2020 Grid Reports, its highest total ever.This included four-way sweeps in both the Market Intelligence and Marketing Account Intelligence sections, as well as best-in-class honors in both Enterprise and Small Business Sales Intelligence.ZoomInfo set a company record by appearing on 14 G2 Grid Reports (No.1 on 10 lists, No.2 on 3 lists, No.For the first time, the company was named in five different sections, including Buyer Intent Data Tools and Lead Capture:ZoomInfo earned at least seven No.
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