(University of Münster) A consortium led by physicist Wolfram Pernice from the University of Münster is receiving almost six million euros for four years from the European Commission for the "PHOENICS" project as part of the "FET Proactive" funding line (Horizon 2020). The group is researching fast and energy-efficient optical computer architectures. The project is intended to give a major boost to the development of new computing resources.
(University of Münster) An international team of researchers found that so-called photonic processors, with which data is processed by means of light, can process information very much more rapidly and in parallel than electronic chips. The results have been published in the scientific journal "Nature".
(University of Münster) The zinc-air battery is an attractive energy storage technology of the future. Based on an innovative, non-alkaline, aqueous electrolyte, an international research team led by scientist Dr. Wei Sun of MEET Battery Research Center at the University of Muenster has developed a new battery chemistry for the zinc-air battery which overcomes the previous technical obstacles.
DNA is the most fundamental building block of life on earth. All genetic information organisms need to function, grow, and reproduce are stored inside of their DNA. Biochemists from the University of Münster have developed a new strategy to control the biological functions of DNA using light. The breakthrough allows researchers to improve their understanding and control of different processes … Continue reading
(University of Münster) An international team of researchers examined how movement and adhesion in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii can be manipulated. To this end, the researchers altered the sugar modifications in proteins on the cell surface. As a result, the so-called adhesion force was also altered. The results have now been published in the open access scientific journal eLife.
(University of Münster) Researchers at the University of Münster have now developed a molecular tool which makes it possible, at the atomic level, to change the structure of a metal surface. The restructuring of the surface by individual molecules - so-called N-heterocyclic carbenes - takes place similar to a zipper. The study has been published in the journal "Angewandte Chemie International Edition".
(University of Münster) Almost all life on Earth, e.g. our food and health, depend on metabolism in plants. To understand how these metabolic processes function, researchers at Münster University with the participation of the University of Bonn are studying key mechanisms in the regulation of energy metabolism. A new method of in vivo biosensor technology has enabled them to monitor in real time what effects environmental changes have on the central metabolism of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.
(University of Münster) An international research team with Prof. Cornelia Denz from the Institute of Applied Physics at the University of Münster (Germany) develop for the first time light fields using caustics that do not change during propagation. With the new method, the physicists cleverly exploit light structures that can be seen in rainbows or when light is transmitted through drinking glasses.
(University of Oldenburg ) Ultra-thin layers protect Lithium electrodes from decomposition. They are called Solid Electrolyte Interphase and form during operation. But until now, it has been almost impossible to directly observe the changes that take place during charging and discharging cycles. A German team from Oldenburg and Muenster has developed a new measuring principle to obtain local, high-resolution information about the processses on the surface of metallic lithium electrodes during battery operation.
(University of Münster) Chemists have for a long time been interested in efficiently constructing polyenes - not least in order to be able to use them for future biomedical applications. However, such designs are currently neither simple nor inexpensive. Scientists at Münster University have now found a bio-inspired solution to the problem. The study has been published in 'Science'.
A new study suggests that the moon is much younger than initially believed. 
Quantum effects are genuinely found in the world of nanostructures and allow a wide variety of new technological applications.All over the world, researchers are engaged in intensive work on the individual components of quantum technologies - these include circuits that process information using single photons instead of electricity, as well as light sources producing such individual quanta of light.Coupling these two components to produce integrated quantum optical circuits on chips presents a particular challenge.Researchers at the University of Münster (Germany) have now developed an interface that couples light sources for single photons with nanophotonic networks.This interface consists of so-called photonic crystals, i.e.The researchers took particular care to achieve this feat in a way that allows for replicating the photonic crystals straightforwardly by using established nanofabrication processes.
PDF files, even with extra encryption, could be easily hacked, a team academics has found.The new attack, called PDFex, comes in two variations and in testing, it was successfully able to steal data from PDF files in 27 desktop and web PDF readers including Adobe Acrobat, Foxit Reader, Nitro and from Chrome and Firefox's built-in PDF viewers.PDFex doesn't actually target the encryption used on PDF documents by external software.Instead the attack targets the encryption schemes used by the Portable Document Format (PDF) which means all PDFs are vulnerable regardless of the software used to view them.While the PDF standard supports native encryption, a team of six academics from Ruhr-University Bocum and Münster University in Germany found issues with the standard's encryption support and leveraged these to create PDFex.According to a blog post published by the researchers, encrypted PDF documents are vulnerable to two attacks types that are known by the method used to carry out the attack and exfiltrate data.
Researchers have found ways around the standard encryption built into the PDF format, which could allow attackers to extract data from supposedly secure documents.The issues, which affect the vast majority of PDF readers, are found in the standard itself, making them more difficult to remedy, the researchers said.The team of six academics from Ruhr-University Bochum and Münster University in Germany said the issues arise because of the fact that the PDF standard allows encrypted and unencrypted content to coexist within the same document, and because of limitations in an encryption method supported by the standard.Because the standard allows PDFs to contain both encrypted and unencrypted content, an attacker could modify an encrypted document to add unencrypted malicious elements.Those elements could be designed to transmit the contents of the PDF to the attacker via the internet once the document is decrypted by an authorised user, the researchers said.“Encrypted PDF files do not have integrity protection,” they wrote in a technical document.
Structured laser light has already opened up various different applications: it allows for precise material machining, trapping, manipulating or defined movement of small particles or cell compartments, as well as increasing the bandwidth for next-generation intelligent computing.If these light structures are tightly focused by a lens, like a magnifying glass used as burning glass, highly intense three-dimensional light landscapes will be shaped, facilitating a significantly enhanced resolution in named applications.These kinds of light landscapes has paved the way to pioneering applications as Nobel prize awarded STED microscopy.However, these nano-fields itself could not be measured yet, since components are formed by tight focusing which are invisible for typical measurement techniques.Up to now, this lack of appropriate metrological methods has impeded the breakthrough of nano-structured light landscapes as a tool for material machining, optical tweezers, or high-resolution imaging.A team around physicist Prof. Dr. Cornelia Denz of the Institute of Applied Physics and chemist Prof. Dr. Bart Jan Ravoo of the Center for Soft Nanoscience at the University of Münster (Germany) successfully developed a nano-tomographic technique which is able to detect the typically invisible properties of nano-structured fields in the focus of a lens - without requiring any complex analysis algorithms or data post-processing.
Whether they are synthetic materials such as PET and Teflon, medicines or flavourings, life without synthetically produced compounds is barely conceivable in our everyday lives today.The chemical industry depends on efficient, long-term methods of producing synthetically derived molecules.But how are such reactions discovered and developed?A team of chemists at the University of Münster (Germany) have developed a strategy for generating such "random hits" in a systematic way, with the aim of discovering new, unexpected reactions.The process of systematically conducting a large number of experiments is called 'screening' and is established practice in particular in pharmaceutical research relating to active ingredients.For this purpose, in the case of photo-catalysts, the phenomenon of emission quenching is used.
Combining two additives instead of one to facilitate the incorporation of lithium within capacitors: that is the solution proposed by researchers from l'Institut des matériaux Jean Rouxel (CNRS/Université de Nantes), in collaboration with Münster Electrochemical Energy Technology (University of Münster, Germany), in order to promote the low-cost, simple, and efficient development of the lithium-ion capacitors used to store electrical energy.Electrochemical storage systems for electricity play a central role in the integration of renewable energy sources, and are about to take over the electro-mobility sector.There are two solutions for storing this energy: lithium-ion batteries, which have the advantage of large storage capacity, and capacitors, which have less capacity, but can charge and uncharge very rapidly a great number of times.The materials that make up lithium-ion capacitors do not contain lithium ions (or electrons), unlike batteries.Two broad strategies are used today: either one of the capacitor's constituent materials is prelithiated before its integration, or an additive high in lithium ions will redistribute them among the capacitor's materials during the first charge.Yet these methods are costly and complex, and can diminish the device's capacity.
It’s officially the rarest nuclear decay—and really, the rarest event of any kind—ever directly measured.As I wrote in my previous article about the result, “The average amount of time it would take half of the xenon atoms in a sample to undergo this reaction is 1.8 × 1022 years... That’s roughly a trillion times the age of the Universe.” My ears figuratively started leaking brain juice attempting to fathom this, so I thought I’d try to break down how it’s possible for scientists to measure such a rare event.This results in the release of a pair of neutrinos and x-rays.Physicists have theorised the existence of this nuclear decay since 1955, and are most interested in it because it’s a stepping stone toward more interesting physics results.Another kind of event, electron capture without neutrinos (when pair of the atom’s neutrons spontaneously emit electrons and neutrinos but the neutrinos go missing, annihilating one another into gamma rays), could reveal profound truths about the nature of the mysterious neutrino, the second-most abundant particle in the Universe.But let’s get back to the bit about 1.8 × 1022 years.
A detector designed to hunt for dark matter has made a particle physics observation that will hopefully help physicists establish important truths about our Universe.No, it didn’t spot dark matter, but the new result proves that these ultra-sensitive detectors are valuable to scientists for multiple reasons.Gravity-wise, the Universe behaves as if it contains way more matter than astronomers have actually identified, so physicists have built experiments to hunt for candidates for this so-called dark matter.But one of these dark matter experiments, called XENON1T, has now observed a process that has avoided multiple detection attempts, one that will hopefully help scientists better understand the shadowy particle called the neutrino.“We get all these cool analyses... for free after having built an experiment sensitive enough to hunt for dark matter.”Scientists are pretty sure that the second most abundant particle in the Universe (after photons, particles of light) is the neutrino.
One of the greatest global challenges is the efficient use of renewable sources in order to meet the increasing demand for energy and feedstock chemicals in the future.In this context, biomass is a promising alternative to existing fossil sources such as coal or oil.These reservoirs are crucial for the production of both fuels and basic chemicals.In order to utilize its full potential, the chain-like structure of cellulose must be broken up.This can be done by a so-called hydrolysis reaction, which, however, is difficult due to the atomic structure of cellulose and has been very costly so far.Researchers at the University of Münster (Germany) headed by Dr. Saeed Amirjalayer and Prof. Harald Fuchs and and the University of Bochum headed by Prof. Dominik Marx have now succeeded in identifying a new reaction mechanism in which cellulose can be converted highly efficiently using mechanical force.
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