Transparency Market Research (TMR) has published a new report titled, “Global Microscopy Devices Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast, 2017–2025”.According to the report, the global microscopy devices market was valued at US$ 6,000 Mn in 2016 and is projected to expand at a CAGR of 8% from 2017 to 2025.The report suggests that rise in demand for advanced microscopy devices due to increase in chronic and acute disease diagnosis, surge in pharmaceutical and biotechnological researches, and drug discovery operations are expected to fuel the growth of the global microscopy devices market from 2017 to 2025.Request a PDF Brochure - global microscopy devices market is growing at a rapid pace owing to emerging new and advanced technologies and rise in demand for pharmaceutical and cell biology research.Asia Pacific and North America are projected to dominate the global microscopy devices market in the next few years owing to increase in manufacturer focus for business expansion in these regions.Factors attributed to the higher share of the segment include increase in demand for different types of optical microscopes and low cost of stereo and phase contrast microscopes.The clinical pathology and diagnostics and surgery segments accounted for combined market share of 25.0% of the global microscopy devices market in terms of revenue in 2016.Growth of the Asia Pacific Microscopy Devices Market Likely To Be Hinged At Japan, ChinaIn terms of revenue, Asia Pacific was the leading market for microscopy devices in 2016.
The report “Top 10 Cellular Analysis Market by Technology (Imaging, PCR, Flow Cytometry, High-content Screening, Blotting, Spectrophotometry), Application (Stem Cell, Cancer, Tissue Engineering) & End User (Biotechnology, Research) – Global Forecast to 2021″, report provides a detailed overview of the major drivers, restraints, challenges, opportunities, current market trends, and strategies impacting the top 10 cellular analysis market along with the estimates and forecasts of the revenue and market share analysis.Ask for  PDF Brochure:- top 10 cellular analysis market is expected to reach USD 41.34 Billion by 2021 from USD 28.66 Billion in 2016, at a CAGR of 7.6% from 2016 to 2021.The major factors driving the growth of this market are the growing biotechnology and biopharmaceutical industries, introduction of technologically advanced cell analysis instruments, increasing incidence of infectious and chronic diseases and rising number of patients suffering from cancer, and increasing investments from various government associations & life sciences companies for cell biology research activities.This report segments the top 10 cellular analysis market on the basis of technology, application, end user, and region.Based on technology, the top 10 cellular analysis market is segmented into cell imaging techniques, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), flow cytometry, cell counting, spectrophotometry, blotting, high-content screening, cell microarray, sample preparation technologies, and centrifugation.The cell imaging techniques segment is expected to dominate the top 10 cellular analysis market in 2016.The increasing number of cancer cases, rising investments in cell biology research, and introduction of technologically advanced cell imaging instruments for the morphological & anatomical examination of specific or group of cells are factors contributing to the growth of this segment.On the basis of application, the top 10 cellular analysis market is segmented into biopharmaceutical applications, stem cell research, cancer research, instruments, tissue engineering & regenerative medicine, and other applications (in vitro diagnostics, organ cultures, virology, IVF, and genetic counselling).The biopharmaceutical application segment is expected to account for the largest share of the top 10 cellular analysis market in 2016.
According to the report, the global amniotic membrane market was valued at ~US$ 980 Mn in 2018 and is projected to expand at a CAGR of ~10% from 2019 to 2027.Global Amniotic Membrane Market: OverviewThe amniotic membrane is a thin tissue that covers the fetal side of the placenta.Human amniotic membranes have been used for more than 100 years as a biomaterial for the surgical reconstruction of different tissues because they promotes wound healing.The two primary types of amniotic membranes are cryopreserved amniotic membranes and lyophilization amniotic membranes.Growth of the global amniotic membrane market can be attributed to increase in the number trauma cases, burn injuries, and other accidental cases where amniotic membranes can be used for wound healing.North America dominated the global amniotic membrane market in 2018, and the trend is anticipated to continue during the forecast period.Request a PDF Brochure - in Research on Stem Cell Biology & Regenerative Medicine to Drive MarketSeveral regenerative medicines for orthopedics and wound healing have received U.S. FDA approval, and many are currently being studied in preclinical and clinical stages.Amniotic membranes along with their epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells are an appropriate source for regenerative medicine and skin tissue engineering.In May 2019, a team from the University of Alexandria, Egypt, began research on the therapeutic efficiency of human amniotic membrane plugs in promoting the closure of large macular holes.A number of players are also investing in the improvement of the efficiency of amniotic membranes for wide acceptance.Increase in research on amniotic membranes as a regenerative medicine is projected to drive the global amniotic membrane market.Cryopreserved Amniotic Membrane Products to Dominate MarketThe cryopreserved amniotic membrane segment dominated the global amniotic membrane market in 2018, and the trend is likely to continue during the forecast period.Using a cryopreserved amniotic membrane is the first-line approach in an ocular surface surgery, owing to its positive effects on wound healing and anti-inflammatory properties.Ophthalmology to be Promising ApplicationIn terms of application, the global amniotic membrane market has been classified into surgical wounds, ophthalmology, and othersThe surgical wounds segment dominated the global amniotic membrane market in 2018.Request for Analysis of COVID19 Impact on Amniotic Membrane Market - Account for Major Share of Global MarketThe hospitals segment dominated the global amniotic membrane market in terms of revenue in 2018, and the trend is projected to continue during the forecast period.Growth of the segment can be attributed to rise in hospitalization rates and wide range of services offered at a single site.North America to Dominate Global Amniotic Membrane MarketNorth America accounted for a major share of the global amniotic membrane market in 2018, owing to the introduction of new products, increase in regulatory approval of amniotic membranes, and rise in the usage of these membranes for wound healing in countries such as the U.S.The amniotic membrane market in Asia Pacific is likely to expand at a high CAGR from 2019 to 2027.Purchase Amniotic Membrane Market Report - Amniotic Membrane Market: Competitive LandscapeMiMedx, Integra LifeSciences, and Osiris Therapeutics, Inc. are the leading players in the global amniotic membrane market.The global amniotic membrane market is fragmented in terms of number of players.
As a result, live-cell imaging is pervasively gaining considerable prominence, and its market is garnering colossal accruals.Moreover, factors such as the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases and growing government funding in cell-based research are escalating the market on global heights.Live Cell Imaging is a technique to study live cells with the help of images obtained with imaging systems such as microscopes and high content screening systems.Over the past few years, the adoption of high content screening techniques in drug discovery and cell biology has been continuously rising and so is growing the live cell imaging market.The increasing number of research activities in pharmaceutical manufacturing and bioscience defines the augmented demand for live-cell imaging and its increasing market size.Indeed, improving economic conditions, worldwide, are propelling the market growth, enabling access to quality, and improved health care.Global Live Cell Imaging Market- Regional Analysis:The North American region dominates the global live cell imaging market with substantial investments made into R activities in the biotech and pharmaceutical sectors.Furthermore, factors such as the existing well-established healthcare system, the increasing prevalence of cancer cases, and technological advancements drive the market growth in the region.Also, high capitalization in imaging systems as well as intensive research and development to improve the imaging quality and data functionality foster the market growth.Strong economic conditions in the region fuel the market growth, allowing funding required for research and development.
UV Gullas College of Medicine Infrastructure is a carefully designed facility that shows the importance of a modern hospital with a specialty and 1200 beds adjacent to it.The seating arrangement in the lecture hall allows students to see the staff and teaching aids without any hindrance from all sides.The Medical Scientist Trainer Program (MSTP) is an indicator of our success in the area of science education and provides students career as a medical scientist in Chicago.MSTP offers a degree in Anatomy and Cell Biology, Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Microbiology & Immunology, Neuroscience, Pharmacology, and Physiology as well as Biophysics, in the university academy divisions of UV Gullas Medical College.UV Gullas College of medicine in Philippines and restorative Universities are today known for giving quality instruction in medication like MBBS, MD and so for.The more significant level of down to earth sessions and profoundly prepared and experienced school personnel are the signs of Philippines Medical University.The foundation of the therapeutic colleges, the educational plan, and air of the Philippines medicinal universities make it a favored area for examining MBBS abroad.
The demand for biologically derived materials for regenerative medicine is currently high due to its efficiency over other naturally derived materials.During the surgical procedures, synthetic materials are more preferred as they provide better outcome.Increase in demand for material reengineering and cell biology with the recent progress in the design of synthetic materials have led to the use of hydrogel in the formation of tissue-engineered scaffolds.According to MRFR, the Global regenerative medicine market 2020 is touted to mature at the CAGR of about 25.4% over the review period (from 2016 to 2022).The global regenerative medicine industry is rapidly on the rise.Factors impacting the regenerative medicine industry are growing development in healthcare technologies, Growing the prevalence of chronic disorders and growing advances in stem cell science are driving market expansion.In turn, the rising prevalence of degenerative diseases and a lack of transplantation organs are projected to fuel business demand.Market development has been fuelled by the influential ability of regenerative medicine to remove, restore, and rebuild weakened tissues and organs.In addition, the use of nanomaterials in wound treatment, medication delivery, and immunomodulation has sparked development opportunities for the demand for regenerative medicines.
(City University of Hong Kong) A joint research team co-led by City University of Hong Kong (CityU) has developed a novel computational tool that can reconstruct and visualise three-dimensional (3D) shapes and temporal changes of cells, speeding up the analysing process from hundreds of hours by hand to a few hours by the computer. Revolutionising the way biologists analyse image data, this tool can advance further studies in developmental and cell biology, such as the growth of cancer cells.
After completing your board exams, you can go for the Bachelor of Science course in Biotechnology at the beginning of your career.Once you have acquired a certificate of BSC Hons in Biotechnology, you will find myriads of options opening.New researches are taking place across the world offering the best solutions for the betterment of human civilization.Students learn how to do research with their developed skill set and find solutions to any crisis.The BSC Hons in biotechnology Raipur is the doorway to a new dimension where you can find many ways to choose and seek a fruitful career.Contribution of an aspirantAfter completing biotech graduation, you can pursue advanced courses to become a professional biotechnologist and make contributions to various fields such as pharmaceuticals, manufacturing, husbandry, cell biology, environment, food, etc.Pursuing a BSC Hons in biotechnology Raipur will deliver various options to work with the best companies in the world.
The various branches of the life sciences sector include pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, environmental sciences, biomedicine, nutraceuticals, neuroscience, cell biology, biophysics, etc.These environmental parameters are expected to strengthen the backbone for the existing manufacturing sectors globally.The growth in personalized medicines is one of the key market trends that promote the evolution of genetics.Therefore, diagnostics specific to human DNA could potentially support the growth dynamics of this sector.Healthcare is one of the key-value chain verticals within this market.The digital transformation of the industrial revolution is one of the key factors that has broadened the horizon for the existing market.Sales associated with medicines are held stagnant due to the cumbersome process within the FDA for drug approval.
The global regenerative medicine Market report by Market Research Future (MRFR) outlines numerous drivers, challenges, trends, and opportunities pertinent for users to succeed in the forecast period of 2016 to 2022.Regenerative Medicine Market Dynamics The global market for regenerative medicine can attain a rate of close to 25.4% between 2016 and 2022, considered to be the forecast timeframe in the recently launched report by Market Research Future (MRFR).Get Free Sample with Complete ToC, Including the Covid-19 Impact Analysis @ Boosters and Key Barriers The availability of a robust product pipeline in clinical trials coupled with increasing government and private funding that facilitate research can work in favor of the regenerative medicine market.many of the companies in the market are making sizeable investments in research and development (R) for product upgradation by integrating them with the latest technologies.This strategic move helps these companies fulfill all the unmet consumer demands.Besides, the renowned companies are also analyzing and developing pipeline products for cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, and neurological disorders, given the rising prevalence of these diseases around the world.The rising number of programs in conjunction with massive investments by private agencies to enhance the development rate of the medical field also fosters market growth.To cite a reference, the National Institutes of Health or NIH is one such agency that backs the scientific research community via NIH Stem Cell Unit, NIH Stem Cell Libraries & Projects, NIH Regenerative Medicine Program, and others.Likewise, initiatives taken by the industry players to increase the finance for R works wonders for the regenerative medicine market.For instance, 3D printing enjoys more demand compared to scaffold with stem cells in order to restore the structure as well as the functional properties of biological specimens.Regenerative Medicine Market Segmentation The market for regenerative medicine has been studied with respect to segments like material, therapy and application.The materials covered in the report are genetically engineered materials, synthetic materials, biologically derived materials, pharmaceuticals, and others.The therapy-based segments are tissue engineering cellular therapy, stem cell biology, and others.The market segments based on the application are oncology, cord blood, orthopedics, urology, dermatology, neurology, orthopedic, cardiovascular, and others.
Global Track Etched Membrane Market was valued US$ 250.00 Mn in 2019 and is expected to reach US$ XX Mn by 2026, at a XX % CAGR of around during a forecast period.The report includes the analysis of impact of COVID-19 lock-down on the revenue of market leaders, followers, and disrupters.The report includes the analysis of impact of COVID-19 lock-down on the revenue of market leaders, followers, and disrupters.The report has covered the current short term and long term impact on the market, same will help decision makers to prepare the outline for short term and long term strategies for companies by region.Rising manufacturing of generic drugs and growing research of the developments of biological molecules, growing adoption of track-etched membrane market in various applications such as healthcare, fuel cells, telecommunication, and transportation, and rising applications in pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industries for research will boost the market of track-etched membrane in forecast period.The report covers the segments in the track etched membrane market such as product type, material, application, and end-user.Based on product type, the Membrane filter segment is expected to hold the largest share of the market during the forecast period due to applicability of membrane filters in final filtration, sample preparation, filtration of aqueous and organic solutions.By application, Cell biology is estimated to hold the largest market of the track-etched membrane during the forecast period due to rising applications in pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industries for research.In terms of end-user, Pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industries are estimated to hold the largest share of the market in the forecast period due to the rising manufacturing of generic drugs and growing research on the developments of biological molecules.Region-wise, North America estimated to holds the largest share of the track etched membrane market in the forecast period due to rising adoption of laboratory equipment and growing health & environmental concerns.Based on product type, the Membrane filter segment is expected to hold the largest share of the market during the forecast period due to applicability of membrane filters in final filtration, sample preparation, filtration of aqueous and organic solutions.The track- etched membrane market in South America and Middle East & Africa is expected to expand because of an increase in health care expenditure and expansion in the health care industry during the forecast period.The objective of the report is to present a comprehensive analysis of the Global Track Etched Membrane Market including all the stakeholders of the industry.
Summary – A New Market Study, “Live Cell Imaging Market Outlook 2022” Has Been Featured On Wiseguyreports.Live Cell Imaging is defined as the study of living cells using high content screening or analysis systems and imaging systems such as microscopes, cell analyzers, etc.The live cell imaging market is expected to reach US$ 7 Billion by 2022.Also Read : report presents an in-depth analysis of several techniques used in imaging of live cells; as well as the segmentation of market by products, applications, technology and geography.Based on product types, the market has been segmented into equipments, consumables and softwares.According to technologies used in live cell imaging, the market has been divided into FRET, FISH, and other major techniques.Similarly, geographical regions include North America, Europe, Asia Pacific and Rest of the World.As per RNCOS’ analysis, live cell imaging is widely entering into a number of fields such as cell biology, developmental biology, drug discovery, stem cell biology, neurobiology and electrophysiology.
Transparency Market Research (TMR) has published a new report titled, “Global Microscopy Devices Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast, 2017–2025”.According to the report, the global microscopy devices market was valued at US$ 6,000 Mn in 2016 and is projected to expand at a CAGR of 8% from 2017 to 2025.The report suggests that rise in demand for advanced microscopy devices due to increase in chronic and acute disease diagnosis, surge in pharmaceutical and biotechnological researches, and drug discovery operations are expected to fuel the growth of the global microscopy devices market from 2017 to 2025.Request a PDF Brochure - global microscopy devices market is growing at a rapid pace owing to emerging new and advanced technologies and rise in demand for pharmaceutical and cell biology research.Asia Pacific and North America are projected to dominate the global microscopy devices market in the next few years owing to increase in manufacturer focus for business expansion in these regions.Factors attributed to the higher share of the segment include increase in demand for different types of optical microscopes and low cost of stereo and phase contrast microscopes.Dominance of the segment is attributed to increased research activities in neuroscience, benefits of using microscopes in the field, and wide product portfolio of major as well as local manufacturers.
A new study reveals that the invertebrates use a novel kind of receptor embedded in their suckers to explore their ocean habitats.
(University of Central Florida) Cell biologists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Bar-Ilan University at Israel and a bioimaging expert at the University of Central Florida are teaming up in what they hope may lead to a major breakthrough in understanding of the three-dimensional organization of the nucleus over time and their role in certain diseases.
A report on the global Regenerative Medicine Market has been recently added by Market Research Future.Market growth primarily attributes to the increasing advancement in healthcare technology and the growing prevalence of chronic diseases.Besides, improvements in the field of regenerative medicine and stem cell technology drive the growth of the market excellently.Moreover, the rising uptake of therapeutics such as stem cell biology, cellular therapy, tissue engineering in applications, including cord blood, oncology, urology, orthopedics, neurology, dermatology, and others accelerate the market growth.According to Market Research Future (MRFR), the global regenerative medicine market is poised to grow at 25.4% CAGR throughout the forecast period (2016 – 2022).Read more news on:, the rising uptake of stem cell & tissue engineering processes in the treatment of health issues ranging from orthopedics, musculoskeletal & spine, dental, and skin/integumentary to cancer, neurology, and cardiology substantiate the market growth.Furthermore, the increasing rate of road accidents, injuries, and trauma cases drive the market exponentially, driving the demand for transplants & surgical reconstruction procedures.On the other hand, factors such as the lack of awareness, skilled professionals, and stringent regulatory policies are projected to act as significant impeders for market growth.Regenerative Medicine Market – SegmentsThe analysis is segmented into four dynamics;By Material: Synthetic Materials, Genetically Engineered Materials, Pharmaceuticals, and others.By Therapy: Stem Cell Biology, Cellular Therapy, Tissue Engineering, and others.By Application: Cord Blood, Oncology, Urology, Orthopedics, Neurology, Dermatology, and others.By Regions: Americas, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East & Africa, and Rest-of-the-World.
The stem cell assay market was valued at USD 660.9 Million in 2017 and is expected to reach USD 1,978.7 Million by 2023, at a CAGR of 20.1%.Factors driving the growth of this market include the rising incidence of target indications; availability of funding for stem cell research; technological advancements in stem cell research instruments; and growth of end-use industries.Ethical issues related to embryonic stem cell research Research in cell biology necessitates the use of animals and humans, as animal and human cells are used in gene therapy studies that involve the recombination of genes and stem cell research therapies.These cells are also used for in vivo toxicity and pharmacokinetic testing of drugs that may harm animals and humans.In addition, stem cell research studies use human embryos for clinical applications that often lead to the destruction of the embryos.In order to monitor these activities, strict regulations have been formulated by ethical authorities, such as the Human Tissue Authority (HTA), Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA), Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), and Central Ethics Committee for Stem Cell Research.The presence of these ethical concerns and restrictions on the use of cells for research is limiting cell biology research to a great extent in various countries across the globe.This, in turn, is expected to restrict the growth of the stem cell assays market.Download a PDF Brochure @ regenerative medicine and therapy development segment dominated the market in 2017 By application, the market is segmented into regenerative medicine and therapy development; drug discovery and development; and clinical research.The regenerative medicine and therapy development segment accounted for the largest share of the global stem cell assay instruments market in 2017.The increasing demand for stem cells in the development of various types of cell therapies and growing regenerative medicine industry across the world are factors driving this market segment.Biopharmaceutical & biotechnology companies to command the largest share of the market during the study period On the basis of end user, the stem cell assay market is segmented into biopharmaceutical & biotechnology companies and research institutes.The biopharmaceutical & biotechnology companies segment accounted for the largest share of the global stem cell assay market in 2017.
Global High Throughput Screening Market by Product & Service (Reagents & Assay Kits, Instruments, Consumables & Accessories, Software, and Services), Technology {Cell-Based Assays, 2D Cell Culture, 3D Cell Culture [Scaffold-Based Technologies (Hydrogels, Inert Matrix, and Micropatterned Surfaces) Scaffold-free Technologies (Microplate, Hanging-drop Plates, Ultra-low Binding Plates, and Other Scaffold-free Technologies)], Perfusion Cell Culture, Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC), Ultra-High-Throughput Screening, Bioinformatics, Label-Free Technology}, Applications (Target Identification & Validation, Primary and Secondary Screening, Toxicology Assessment, and Others), End User (Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Companies, Academic and Government Institutes, Contract Research Organizations, and Others), and Region (Americas, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Middle East & Africa)—Forecast till 2025Market SynopsisHigh Throughput Screening (HTS) is an automated drug-discovery process that is typically utilized in the pharmaceutical business.It uses mechanization to identify active compounds, genes, or antibodies in a relatively short time frame.The technique has its use in the initial stages of drug discovery pathway and in toxicology studies.Since HTS enables assaying of a large set of potential biological modulators against a chosen number of defined targets, it has attained the status of being a popular approach to the target validation.Avail a Free [email protected] The past few years have seen the HTS market growing in a pervasive manner owing to the proliferating pharmaceutical industry and the rising adoption of HTS in drug discovery.Moreover, the rising per capita healthcare expenditures coupled with the enhanced economic conditions are accelerating the market growth of HTS.Market SegmentationThe market segmentation of High-throughput Screening is segmented on the following basis: application, product, and end-users.By application, the market includes Toxicology, Target Identification, Stem Cell Biology, Primary Screening, and others.By products, the market comprises consumables, software, instruments, and others.By end-users, the market includes pharmaceutical companies/manufacturers, government organizations, Hospitals and clinics, research facilities, and othersRegional AnalysisThe regional market segmentation of High-throughput Screening market is divided into North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and the Middle East & Africa.The North American region is the global geographical market leader of high-throughput screening and is expected to grow at an impressive CAGR of XX% during the forecast period.High expenditure in healthcare coupled with substantial investments from government and private entities for R& purposes are sure to push the market reach of the North American region.Europe is the second-largest market and is projected to grow at a substantially fast-paced CAGR percentage during the forecast period.
Summary - A new market study, titled “Global Amniotic Membrane Market Research Report- Forecast To 2022” has been featured on WiseGuy Reports.Global Amniotic Membrane Market: Information by Type (Cryopreserved and Lyophilized), Application (Surgical Wounds, Ophthalmology, Stem Cell Biology, Regenerative Medicine, Others), by End User (Hospitals & Clinics, Others) and Region - Forecast till 2025Market analysis Generally, the growing aging patient populace, the rise in amniotic membrane-based transplantations globally, and rising disease awareness are driving the growth of the global amniotic membrane market.Ever-increasing consciousness about the advantages of amniotic membrane transfer.It is developed as a skin alternative as well as a surgical biomaterial in a range of settings such as clinical medicine of extreme circumstances, which contains ocular syndromes, skin wound treatment, and reconstructive surgery.Though, rising healthcare cost is anticipated to restrain market expansion.Amniotic membrane is a blend of tissues and cells which helps in wound healing by behaving as a groundwork for re-growth of soft tissues.
Herd immunity is back on everyone’s radar after a group of scientists signed an open letter expressing “grave concerns about the damaging physical and mental health impacts of the prevailing Covid-19 policies”.Their letter – named The Great Barrington Declaration, after the US town where it was signed – argues against strict lockdown measures and policies, in favour of letting the virus run its natural course among the young and healthy in society, while still protecting those who are most vulnerable. The ultimate goal is ‘herd immunity’ which is what happens when enough of a population becomes immune to a disease, either because they’ve been vaccinated or because they’ve had the disease, recovered and developed immunity.Dr Martin Kulldorff, professor of medicine at Harvard University; Dr Sunetra Gupta, epidemiology professor at Oxford University, and Dr Jay Bhattacharya, professor at Stanford University Medical School, are the letter’s lead signatories.“The most compassionate approach that balances the risks and benefits of reaching herd immunity, is to allow those who are at minimal risk of death to live their lives normally to build up immunity to the virus through natural infection, while better protecting those who are at highest risk,” their declaration states.This approach, which the signatories call “focused protection”, has the support of 2,770 medical and public health scientists; 3,678 medical practitioners and 58,107 members of the public, according to the declaration’s website.However it does not have the backing of the UK government. A spokesperson for No 10 said: “We have considered the full range of scientific opinion throughout the course of this pandemic and we will continue to do so.“But what I would also say is that it is not possible to rely on an unproven assumption that it is possible for people who are at lower risk, should they contract the virus, to avoid subsequently transmitting it to those who are at a higher risk and would face a higher risks of ending up in hospital, or worse in an intensive care unit.”The scientists involved with the declaration say they are motivated by concern that lockdown policies are producing “devastating effects” on short and long-term public health. They cite lower childhood vaccination rates, worsening heart disease outcomes, fewer cancer screenings and deteriorating mental health, and point out that the working class and younger members of society carry the heaviest burden.The open letter argues that adopting measures to protect the vulnerable should be the central aim of public health responses to Covid-19, while those who are not vulnerable should immediately be allowed to resume life as normal.However, some experts are pointing to glaring holes in the idea and are worried about the consequences of adopting such an approach. Professor Jeremy Rossman, honorary senior lecturer in virology at the University of Kent, is one of them.While he acknowledges the actions taken to control Covid-19 have had “significant physical and mental health impacts across the population”, he is concerned the declaration ignores critical aspects that could result in significant impacts to health and lives. Many others are concerned that key issues haven’t been addressed or explained by the declaration – such as: how do we define who is vulnerable? And how do you then keep those people safe without locking them away?Here are some of the questions we still don’t know the answer to when it comes to herd immunity for Covid-19.Related... Why Are Covid-19 Cases High, But Deaths Remain Quite Low? Is herd immunity to Covid-19 even possible?In short, we don’t know. “Herd immunity relies on lasting immunological protection from coronavirus re-infection; however, we have heard many recent cases of re-infection occurring and some research suggests protective antibody responses may decay rapidly,” Prof Rossmann says.Some studies have found a steep decline in patients’ antibody levels three months after infection, which isn’t great news for the herd immunity argument. In lieu of the right antibodies, T-cells – a type of white blood cell specialised in recognising virus-infected cells and destroying them – might help us stay immune to the illness for a bit longer. However we need more studies to confirm if this is the case – and how effective they are.Prof James Naismith, director of the Rosalind Franklin Institute and a professor at the University of Oxford, points out, that don’t even have herd immunity to the common cold, despite many of us having one or more each year. It would be helpful if the scientists backing the declaration could provide estimates of the achievability of herd immunity with “different immune response decays”, he says – that is, timeframes in which Covid immunity dwindles.Dr Simon Clarke, associate professor of Cellular Microbiology at the University of Reading, suggests that to find out whether herd immunity is possible, “would be to consign a great many more thousands of people to their deaths, and many more would be left suffering from the effects of long Covid, which is even less well understood”.Mike Ryan, executive director of the World Health Organisation’s health emergencies program, previously said 60-80% of the population would need to be vaccinated or have antibodies to achieve herd immunity. It’s thought less than 8% of people in the UK currently have antibodies that could fight Covid. Dr Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease in the US, previously warned that if America were to try to achieve herd immunity, the death toll would be “enormous”.Related... The Truth About 'Boosting' Your Immune System Against Covid-19 What would this mean for young people?The declaration suggests people who aren’t vulnerable should immediately be allowed to resume life as normal.“Simple hygiene measures, such as hand washing and staying home when sick should be practiced by everyone to reduce the herd immunity threshold,” it says. “Schools and universities should be open for in-person teaching. Extracurricular activities, such as sports, should be resumed.”Young low-risk adults should also be able to work normally, it says, rather than from home, and restaurants and other businesses should open. Arts, music, sport and other cultural activities should also resume. “People who are more at risk may participate if they wish, while society as a whole enjoys the protection conferred upon the vulnerable by those who have built up herd immunity.”It doesn’t mention the growing issue of long Covid, however. As Prof Rossman points out, “many healthy young adults with ‘mild’ Covid-19 infections are experiencing protracted symptoms and long-term disability”.Could ‘herd immunity’ fuel long Covid?Professor Tim Spector, the lead researcher of the UK’s Covid Symptom Study app, which has 4 million users, recently said the effects of long Covid could turn out to be a bigger public health problem than excess deaths. So it’s definitely an important factor to take into account.Long Covid appears to be rare in those under 18 and over 65, with higher prevalence among those of working age, according to a report from the Tony Blair Institute for Global Change. The median age of those affected is 45 years-old, and it affects women more than men.It’s thought around one in 10 people who had Covid-19 go on to experience long-term symptoms including extreme fatigue, breathlessness and brain fog.The concern is if we let the virus sweep through those who are least vulnerable – so, those of working age – we risk taking a significant gamble not only on people’s health, but also the economy.Related... Long Covid Isn't Just Leaving People Sick – It's Taking Everything They've Got How would protecting the vulnerable work?Prof Rossman’s ultimate concern is that countries which have avoided lockdown restrictions in favour of personal responsibility and ‘focused protection’ of the elderly, such as Sweden, were not able to protect the vulnerable population. Anders Tegnell, Sweden’s state epidemiologist, recently admitted herd immunity has not materialised, the Wall Street Journal reported.“While there is clearly a need to support and ease the physical and mental health burdens many are suffering under, the proposed declaration is both unlikely to succeed and puts the long-term health of many at risk,” he says.The idea of protecting the vulnerable is not new, and is indeed already in place in the UK – for instance, in the case of the flu, where we have a national vaccination programme that gives a vaccine each year to the elderly and vulnerable, and sometimes those around them, too.With that in mind, a Covid vaccine would be a shortcut to herd immunity, but as it stands we still don’t know if and when a vaccine will be ready. There are some other questions raised too: how do we effectively shield vulnerable populations while leaving younger generations to go about their lives as normal?The declaration’s website suggests, by example, that nursing homes, should use staff with acquired immunity and perform frequent PCR testing of other staff and all visitors, while staff rotation should be minimised.“Retired people living at home should have groceries and other essentials delivered to their home,” it also suggests. “When possible, they should meet family members outside rather than inside.”Related... Why 'Chain Of Trust' Is The Next Covid-19 Term You Need To Know About What are the risks of segregating people?Segregation might seem a solution, but we know that placing people in extreme isolation has profound effects on people’s mental health. Dr Stephen Griffin, associate professor in the School of Medicine at University of Leeds, says that while the declaration is “clearly a well-intentioned movement”, their suggested approach has “profound ethical, logistical and scientific flaws”.“Ethically, history has taught us that the notion of segregating society, even perhaps with good initial intentions, usually ends in suffering,” he points out. Logistically, he questions how the most vulnerable would first be identified and and then effectively separated from the rest of society. Dr Michael Head, a senior research fellow in Global Health at the University of Southampton, warns “it is a very bad idea” and that segregating members of society “would also promote further inequalities across society, for example across the Black, Asian and minority ethnic communities [who are at greater risk from Covid-19]”.If herd immunity is not a foolproof solution – arguably, even a dangerous one – what is the right approach? Dr Rupert Beale, group leader of the cell biology of infection laboratory at the Francis Crick Institute, says an effective response to the Covid pandemic requires multiple targeted interventions to reduce transmission, to develop better treatments and to protect vulnerable people. “This declaration prioritises just one aspect of a sensible strategy – protecting the vulnerable – and suggests we can safely build up ‘herd immunity’ in the rest of the population,” says Dr Beale. “This is wishful thinking.”“It is not possible to fully identify vulnerable individuals, and it is not possible to fully isolate them. Furthermore, we know that immunity to coronaviruses wanes over time, and re-infection is possible – so lasting protection of vulnerable individuals by establishing ‘herd immunity’ is very unlikely to be achieved in the absence of a vaccine.” Related... 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