Adsorption of the hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,3-dichlorobenzene (DCB), 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB) and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) on five different carbonaceous materials was compared.coal-based activated carbon price per ton The adsorbents included three polymer-based activated carbons, one coal-based activated carbon (F400) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT).The polymer-based activated carbons were prepared using KOH activation from waste polymers: polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) and tire rubber (TR).Compared with F400 and MWNT, activated carbons derived from PVC and PET exhibited fast adsorption kinetics and high adsorption capacity toward the HOCs, attributed to their extremely large hydrophobic surface area (2700 m2/g) and highly mesoporous structures.Adsorption of small-sized TCE was stronger on the tire-rubber-based carbon and F400 resulting from the pore-filling effect.In contrast, due to the molecular sieving effect, their adsorption on HCH was lower.
This work reports on the label-free electrical detection of DNA molecules for the first time, using silicon carbide (SiC) red shiliu abrasive as a novel material for the realization of nanowire field effect transistors (NWFETs).SiC is a promising semiconductor for this application due to its specific characteristics such as chemical inertness and biocompatibility.Non-intentionally n-doped SiC NWs are first grown using a bottom-up vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism, leading to the NWs exhibiting needle-shaped morphology, with a length of approximately 2 μm and a diameter ranging from 25 to 60 nm.Then, the SiC NWFETs are fabricated and functionalized with DNA molecule probes via covalent coupling using an amino-terminated organosilane.The drain current versus drain voltage (I d-V d) characteristics obtained after the DNA grafting and hybridization are reported from the comparative and simultaneous measurements carried out on the SiC NWFETs, used either as sensors or references.As a representative result, the current of the sensor is lowered by 22% after probe DNA grafting and by 7% after target DNA hybridization, while the current of the reference does not vary by more than ±0.6%.
The adsorption equilibrium isotherms of five phenolic compounds, phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, from aqueous solutions onto granular activated carbonwww.granular-activated-carbon.com were studied and modeled.In order to determine the best-fit isotherm, the experimental equilibrium data were analyzed using thirteen adsorption isotherm models with more than two-parameter; nine three-parameter equations - the Redlich-Peterson, Sips, Langmuir-Freundlich, Fritz-Schlunder, Radke-Prasnitz (three models), Tóth, and Jossens isotherms - three four-parameter equation - the Weber-van Vliet, Fritz-Schlunder, and Baudu isotherms - and one five-parameter equation - the Fritz-Schlunder isotherm.The results reveal that the adsorption isotherm models fitted the experimental data in the order: Baudu (four-parameter)>Langmuir-Freundlich (three-parameter)>Sips (three-parameter)>Fritz-Schlunder (five-parameter)>Tóth (three-parameter)>Fritz-Schlunder (four-parameter)>Redlich-Peterson (three-parameter).The influence of solution pH on the adsorption isotherms of 4-CP was investigated.It was shown that the solution pH has not an effect on the adsorption isotherms for pHactivated carbon supplier south africa
4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (4-MCHM) is a saturated higher alicyclic primary alcohol that is used in the froth flotation process for cleaning coal.coal carbon granular In early 2014, a large spill of crude chemical (containing primarily 4-MCHM) to the Elk River near Charleston, WV contaminated the local water supply.Carbon filters at the affected water treatment facility quickly became saturated, and the contaminated water was distributed to nearby homes and businesses.Sorption of 4-MCHM to granular activated carbon (GAC) was studied in the laboratory using head space (HS) analysis via gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID).Sorption to raw coal was also investigated, since this material may be of interest as a sorbent in the case of an on-site spill.As expected, sorption to both materials increased with decreased particle size and with increased exposure time; although exposure time proved to be much more important in the case of GAC than for coal.
This study investigates the behavior of gold adsorption from cyanide leaching solution onto activated coconut shell carbon.coconut shell activated carbon manufacturer The experimental was designed according to CCD implemented with RSM and a quadratic model was developed for regression analysis.The effects of important parameters including pH, agitation rate, adsorbent concentration and adsorption time were studied to find the best operating conditions, and the optimized value of pH, agitation rate, activated carbon concentration and adsorption time was found to be 11, 40 rpm, 1.25 g/L and 3 h, respectively.Under these conditions, the adsorption rate was found to be about 87.11%.Also, the optimal conditions were established on industrial cyanide leaching solution and the results demonstrated that adsorption rate of gold could be obtained about 89.25%.Adsorption behavior was kinetically investigated using pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order models among which data were mostly correlated to pseudo first-order model.
Two laboratory-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blankets (UASB) reactors, one with and one without granular activated carbon (GAC)wholesale granular activated carbon , were operated for municipal sewage treatment at low temperatures (16.5 ± 2.0 °C).During the 120-day operation, the GAC-amended reactor significantly enhanced COD removal (from 62% to 75%, P < 0.05) and methane production (from 87 to 218 mg CH4-COD/reactor/d) than the non-GAC reactor.Bacterial communities were significantly different between the two reactors (P < 0.05).Geobacter, a key indicator for direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET), had the highest differential score (LEfSe analysis), showing significantly higher abundances in the GAC-amended reactor (3.7-8.8%) than the non-GAC reactor (0.9-4.0%).GAC also enriched syntrophic bacteria, Syntrophomonas, Syntrophus and sulfate reducing bacteria.Methanobacterium dominated the archaeal community in the GAC-amended reactor sludge (35.7%) andactivated carbon pellets manufacturers GAC-biofilm (75.3%), and was less abundant in the non-GAC reactor (9.9%).
Chars from gasification of coal and pine activated with K2CO3: acetaminophen and caffeine adsorption from aqueous solutionsThe high carbon contents and low toxicity levels of chars from coal and pine gasification provide an incentive to consider their use as precursors of porous carbons obtained by chemical activation with K2CO3.Given the chars characteristics, previous demineralization and thermal treatments were made, but no improvement on the solids properties was observed.coal activated carbon The highest porosity development was obtained with the biomass derived char (Pi).This char sample produced porous materials with preparation yields near 50% along with high porosity development (ABET≈1500m(2)g(-1)).A mesopore network was developed only for samples calcined at 900°C.Kinetic and equilibrium acetaminophen and caffeine adsorption data, showed that the processes obey to a pseudo-second order kinetic equation and to the Langmuir model, respectively.
A series of granular activated carbons (GACs)www.granular-activated-carbon.com were prepared by briquetting method from Chinese coals of different ranks and their blends, with coal pitch as the binder.Pore structural parameters including BET specific surface area (SBET), total pore volume (VT) and average pore diameter (da) were measured and calculated as well as process parameters such as yield of char (CY) and burn-off (B).The relationship between the pore structural parameters of the GAC from coal blend (BC-GAC) and the ones of the GACs from corresponding single coals (SC-GACs) was analyzed, in which an index, the relative error (δ), was presented to define the bias between fitted values and experimental values of these parameters of the BC-GACs.The results show that the BC-GAC keeps qualitatively the pore structural features of the SC-GACs; as concerned as the quantitative relationship, the pore structural parameters of the BC-GAC from coal blend consisting of non-caking coals can be obtained by adding proportionally the pore structural parameters of the SC-GACs with δ less than 10%.Meanwhile, for the BC-GAC active carbon pelletsfrom coal blend containing weak caking bituminous coal, the δ increases up to 25% and the experimental pore size distribution differs greatly from the fitted one.
The recovery of natural gas from unconventional gas reservoirs such as shales and coal bedsactivated carbon pellets has increased significantly over the past few years.Since a majority of gas in these reservoirs is in an adsorbed state, knowledge of adsorption behavior of gases is essential for reliable gas-in-place estimates of these reservoirs.Further, some of these reservoirs also offer the potential for carbon dioxide sequestration.The existence of geothermal gradients in such reservoirs can affect the amount of gas.To date, limited studies exist in the literature for modeling of temperature dependence of supercritical gas adsorption.In this work, we present a modification of the simplified local density (SLD) model to improve predictions of the temperature dependence of supercritical gas adsorption.Activated carbons were chosen as the reference adsorbents in the development of the modifications to the model since adsorption data on activated carbons are much more plentiful than data on coals and shales, for which data at multiple temperatures are extremely limited.
Pyrite is the most common inorganic iron-bearing mineral in coal.In order to reveal the influence of inherent pyrite on physicochemical structure and adsorption performance of AC, in this study, different content of pyrite (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%) were physically mixed with Yangcheng coal and briquetted, carbonized and steam activated for activated carbon (AC) preparation.carbon pellets manufacturer As-obtained ACs’ morphology, pore texture, carbon crystallite structure and surface chemistry were characterized by SEM, BET, XRD and FTIR, respectively.The results show that pyrite (FeS2) transformed into hematite (Fe2O3) during AC preparation.Pyrite promotes the interaction between water vapor and carbon and enhances the rate of gasification reactivity by inhibiting the growth of heavy aromatic structures, catalyzing the graphitization process and enhancing the surface chemical properties.The total specific area and specific surface area of micropore of 2%FeS2/AC are up to 836 m2/g and 644 m2/g, which are 58.6% and 46.9% higher than AC, respectively.The 2 h sulfur capacity of 2%FeS2/AC is up to 65.2 mg/g, which is 18.8% greater than that of AC (54.9 mg/g), the mechanism of which was proposed: absorbed gaseous SO2 finally transformed into H2SO4 in macropores and forming an acid macro-environment where most Fe2O3 attacked by the generated H2SO4 on the AC’s pore surface to form Fe2(SO4)3.
To mitigate membrane fouling of membrane-coupled anaerobic process, granular activated carbon (GAC: 50 g/L)granular activated carbon manufacturerwas added into an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB).A short-term ultrafiltration test was investigated for analyzing membrane fouling potential and underlying fouling mechanisms.The results showed that adding GAC into the EGSB not only improved the COD removal efficiency, but also alleviated membrane fouling efficiently because GAC could help to reduce soluble microbial products, polysaccharides and proteins by 26.8%, 27.8% and 24.7%, respectively, compared with the control system.Furthermore, excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy analysis revealed that GAC addition mainly reduced tryptophan protein-like, aromatic protein-like and fulvic-like substances.In addition, the resistance distribution analysis demonstrated that adding GAC primarily decreased the cake layer resistance by 53.5%.The classic filtration mode analysis showed that cake filtration was the major fouling mechanism for membrane-coupled EGSB process regardless of the GAC addition.
Phenol is one of the major pollutant released to water resources from manufacturing industries engaged in textile processing, petrochemical production, oil refining, etc.
coconut shell activated carbon These phenolic compounds are water soluble and being highly toxic has adverse effects on aquatic life and environment.
Removal of phenols from wastewaters has become mandatory due to stringent environmental regulations.
Adsorption technique found to be effective process compared to other pollutant removal techniques, whereas its applications is limited due to high cost of adsorbents.
In this research study, in a fluidised-bed reactor a low cost and easily available agricultural waste of activated carbon from coconut shells, were utilized as adsorbent to study its viability and efficiency for removal of phenol.
The efficacy of the reactor was evaluated for phenol removal with kinetic and equilibrium studies.
Lithium is one of scarce natural resources in the world that need to be preserve.coconutactivatedcarbon.com One of the way in preserving the resource is by recovery the rich source of the lithium such as in the spent batteries.It is necessary to develop a recovery method which is efficient and low-cost to be able to recover the lithium in an economic scale.In this study, low-cost activated carbon (AC) from coconut shell charcoal was prepared by chemical and physical activation methods and tested for Li removal from Co, Mn, and Ni ions in semi-continuous columns adsorption experiments.The maximum surface area is 365 m2/g with the total pore volume is 0.148 cm3/g that can be produced by physical activation at 800 °C.In the same activation temperature, activation using KOH has larger ratio of micropore volume than physical activation.
This paper proposes a novel self-developed JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 alkaline adsorbent for H2S removal and gas cleaning of the COREX coal gascoal activated carbon manufacturers in small-scale and commercial desulfurizing devices.JTS-01 desulfurizer was loaded with metal oxide (i.e., ferric oxides) catalysts on the surface of activated carbons (AC), and the catalyst capacity was improved dramatically by means of ultrasonically assisted impregnation.Consequently, the sulfur saturation capacity and sulfur capacity breakthrough increased by 30.3% and 27.9%, respectively.The whole desulfurizing process combined selective adsorption with catalytic oxidation.Moreover, JZC-80 adsorbent can effectively remove impurities such as HCl, HF, HCN, and ash in the COREX coal gas, stabilizing the system pressure drop.The JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 adsorbent have been successfully applied for the COREX coal gas cleaning in the commercial plant at Baosteel, Shanghai.
The sorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) on granular activated carbon (GAC) granular activated carbon wholesalewas characterized and compared to explore the underlying mechanisms.Sorption of the three perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) on GAC appeared to be a rapid intra-particle diffusion process, which were well represented by the pseudo-second-order rate model with the sorption rate following the order PFOS > PFOA > PFHpA.Sorption isotherm data were well fitted by the Freundlich model with the sorption capacity (Kf) of PFOS, PFOA and PFHpA being 4.45, 2.42 and 1.66 respectively.This suggests that the hydrophilic head group on PFAAs, i.e.sulfonate vs carboxylic, has a strong influence on their sorption.Comparison between PFOA and PFHpA revealed that hydrophobicity could also play a role in the sorption of PFAAs on GACwww.wyactivatedcarbon.com when the fluorocarbon chain length is different.
In order to study the effect of temperature on the adsorption separation characteristics of CH4/N2 mixtures, activated carbons (AC) were prepared from low-rank bituminous coal by KOH activation method, marked as DF-AC and SM-AC.coal activated carbon manufacturers The adsorption isotherms of pure CH4 and N2 on AC were described by Langmuir-Freundlich model based on the high-pressure adsorption experiments.The adsorption selectivity calculated by ideal adsorption solution theory (IAST) method was used to evaluate the adsorption and separation characteristics of CH4/N2 binary mixtures.Results show that the adsorption equilibrium states of pure CH4 and N2 on activated carbons are significantly different, and the CH4 is more sensitive to the variation of temperatures.The isosteric heat of adsorption of CH4 is always larger than that of N2 under experimental pressure condition.This indicates that the interaction between the CH4 molecules with activated carbons is stronger than that of N2 molecules.
Decolorization of dye wastewater before discharge is pivotal because of its immense color and toxicities.www.wyactivatedcarbon.com In this study, a granular activated carbon based microbial fuel cell (GACB-MFC) was used without using any expensive materials like Nafion membrane and platinum catalyst for simultaneous decolorization of real dye wastewater and bioelectricity generation.After 48 hours of GACB-MFC operation, 73% color was removed at anode and 77% color was removed at cathode.COD removal was 71% at the anode and 76% at the cathode after 48 hours.Toxicity measurements showed that cathode effluent was almost nontoxic after 24 hours.The anode effluent was threefold less toxic compared to original dye wastewater after 48 hours.granular activated carbon wholesale The GACB-MFC produced a power density of 1.7 W/m(3) with an open circuit voltage 0.45 V. One of the advantages of the GACB-MFC system is that pH was automatically adjusted from 12.4 to 7.2 and 8.0 at the anode and cathode during 48 hours operation.
This research is to develop the natural Activated Carbon (AC) composites prepared from carbon coconut shell coconutactivatedcarbon.com reinforced with polypropylene (PP).Carbon coconut shell were selected from in-productive of coconut shell specifically namely as carbon Komeng coconut shell (CKCS) with different weight percentages of AC (6, 4 and 2wt%) and PP (4, 6 and 8wt%) contents.The specimens were then encapsulated with epoxy resin.The entire specimens were prepared using SRM (Silicon Rubber Moulds) with dumbbell shape and rectangular shape according to the standard ASTM D2099 and ASTM D256 respectively.The mechanical properties of all samples were investigated to characterize the quality of the samples.The morphological studies of reinforced samples were observed by using SEM machine.
The impurities of coal plague its values not only for fuels but also for preparing functional carbon materials.coal activated carbonHerein, we aim to develop a clean and one-step strategy to prepare activated carbon by molten salt leaching and electrolysis approach to converting anthracite/lignite to carbon for electrochemical supercapacitors.First, the major impurities such as silica and alumina were removed by a combined molten salt and water leaching process without using any toxic acid or alkaline solutions.Meanwhile, the carbonization and activation of coals take place together in the water- and oxygen-free molten salt medium.Moreover, the electrolysis can further increase the specific capacitance of the coal-derived carbon by the electrochemical regulation of carbon in molten salt using a low-cost and oxygen-evolution inert anode.The as-obtained carbon delivers a capacitance of 190 F g−1 at 5 A g−1 and shows nearly no capacitance loss after 10,000 cycles.This paper provides a clean molten salt approach to utilizing both high-rank and low-rank coals for the preparation of capacitive carbons.Highlightswww.activated-carbon-pellets.com •Al2O3 and SiO2 in the coal can be removed by molten carbonate leaching.•The coal-derived carbon was regulated at the cathode in molten carbonate.•The coal-derived carbon delivered a specific capacitance of 190 F g−1 at 5 A g−1.•Both anthracite and lignite can be converted to capacitive carbon in molten salt.
The adsorption breakthrough behavior of nine perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in groundwaters by four bituminous coal-based granular activated carbons (F400, Carbsorb 40, HPC and CMR400) was studied using rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs).wanyang The half breakthrough bed volume (BV50), an indicator of apparent adsorption capacity, correlated with the hydrophobicity of PFAS at a given pH (i.e., Log Dow) for F400, indicating that hydrophobic interaction is important for apparent adsorption capacity of PFAS in groundwater with low dissolved organic concentrations (DOC < 1 mg C/L) and low specific UV absorbances at 254 nm (SUVA254 < 2 L mg-1m-1).Higher empty bed contact time (EBCT) caused steeper PFAS breakthrough curves with respect to throughput, but did not affect apparent adsorption capacity.Three different sizes of F400 (0.13, 0.17, and 0.20 mm) exhibited similar breakthrough profiles of PFAS, indicating that the intraparticle diffusivity was independent of adsorbent diameter in the given conditions.Among the tested carbons, the positively charged adsorbents (F400, HPC, and CMR400) showed higher apparent adsorption capacities for hydrophilic (Log Dow at pH 7 < 0) and marginally hydrophobic PFAS (Log Dow at pH 7 between 0 and 1) than the negatively charged adsorbent (Carbsorb 40).In addition, activated carbons with higher micropore surface areas exhibited higher apparent adsorption capacities of hydrophilic and marginally hydrophobic PFAS among the positively-charged activated carbons, whereas the mesoporous carbon (HPC) exhibited an increasingly larger adsorption capacity for more hydrophobic PFAS compared to the microporous carbongranular activated carbon supplier (F400) at a later breakthrough possibly due to less pore blockage.